SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 82688
CASRN 82-68-8
SynonymsPentachloronitrobenzene
PCNB
Terraclor
Quintozene
Benzene, pentachloronitro-
Analytical Methods EPA Method 617
EPA Method 8081
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC6Cl5NO2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use SLIME PREVENTION IN INDUSTRIAL WATER; HERBICIDE FUNGICIDE FOR LAWNS, TURF, SEED TREATMENT OF FIELD CROPS, VEGETABLES, & OTHER FIELD CROPS-EG, SOYBEANS APPROVED IN USA FOR USE AS SOIL FUNGICIDE ON ORNAMENTAL CROPS (EG, CARNATIONS, GRASSES, LILIES & ROSES) & AS TREATMENT FOR USE ON WIDE VARIETY OF SEEDS (EG, BARLEY, CORN, COTTON, OATS, RICE & WHEAT). INTRODUCED AS 15% DUST (NOW 20%) (TRITISAN) FOR SEED TREATMENT OF WHEAT AGAINST BUNT & AS 20% DUST (BRASSICOL) AS SOIL FUNGICIDE. THE 20% DUST IS EFFECTIVE AGAINST BOTRYTIS ON LETTUCE (BOTRILEX). /BOTRILEX (20% DUST) & BRASSICOL (20% DUST) ARE EFFECTIVE FOR CONTROL OF SNOW MOLD OF RYE & OTHER LOW-TEMPERATURE FUNGI EFFECTIVE AS SOIL FUNGICIDE ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF RHIZOCTONIA & SCLEROTINIA. Used for damping off of cotton; black root and club root of cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, and broccoli potatoes; southern stem and root rot of peanuts; southern blight of tomatoes and peppers; root and stem rot and white mold of beans; white rot of garlic; bunt of wheat; botrytis storage rot of roses; brown patch and snow mold of turf; petal blight of azaleas; root rot of easter lilies; flower blight of camellia; stem rot of various ornamentals; and crown and black rot of bulbous ornamentals Used on cabbage during soil treatment against club root (plasmodiophora). 101 Brand PCNB 75 Wettable Used on avocados during soil and seed treatment against rhizoctonia. Olin Terraclor 75% Wettable Powder Used on ornamental turf and lawns during foliar treatment against snow mold (fusarium). Olin Terraclor 75% Wettable Powder
Consumption Patterns FUNGICIDE FOR PEANUTS, 47%; SEED TREATMENT FOR FIELD CROPS, 11%; POTATOES, 3%; VEGETABLES, 3%; OTHER FIELD CROPS-EG, SOYBEANS, 21%; LAWNS & TURF, 16% (1982) QUINTOZENE USAGE IN CALIF, MAJOR AGRICULTURAL STATE, WAS 22,000 KG IN 1971 & 25,000 KG IN 1972 OVER 70% WAS APPLIED TO COTTON & ABOUT 8% WAS USED FOR COTTONSEED TREATMENT.
Apparent Color CRYSTALS FROM ALCOHOL; COLORLESS NEEDLES; FINE NEEDLES FROM ALCOHOL, PLATELETS FROM CARBON DISULFIDE
Odor MUSTY ODOR
Boiling Point 328 DEG C AT 760 MM HG WITH SOME DECOMPOSITION
Melting Point 144 DEG C
Molecular Weight 295.36
Density 1.718 AT 25 DEG C/4 DEG C
Environmental Impact Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) is used as an intermediate, herbicide, fungicide for seed and soil treatment, and as a slime inhibitor in industrial waters. PCNB released to soil is not expected to leach extensively. Field and laboratory half-lives for PCNB in soil vary from several weeks to almost 2 years. Volatilization may be the most significant loss mechanism for PCNB from aerobic soils, followed by biodegradation. In a anaerobic soil, PCNB loss was principally by conversion to pentachloroaniline (PCA). PCNB released to water will sorb to sediments, suspended sediments, and biota. An estimated Henry's Law Constant for PCNB indicates that volatilization from water may be significant; however, sorption of PCNB to organic particulate matter in water will decrease the significance of volatilization. PCNB will have a low to moderate tendency to bioconcentrate (BCF in fish 200-1200). Photolysis and hydrolysis of PCNB are probably not significant degradative processes. Biodegradation appears to be relatively slow; however, it may be a significant degradative process for PCNB in water. No information was found on the fate of PCNB in the atmosphere; however, it will probably adsorb to particulate matter and thus may be removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. PCNB has been found in drinking water, well water, crop land and nursery soils, spinach leaves, cheese, fruits, ground grains, leaf and stem vegetables, nuts, and oilseed by-products. The most probable route of human exposure to PCNB will probably be through the ingestion of contaminated food.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) released to soil is not expected to leach extensively. Numerous soil fate studies have been conducted on PCNB. The % distribution of PCNB in a terrestrial microcosm chamber, when applied as a coating on alfalfa and ryegrass seeds, was: 59 (soil), 24 (air), 16 (plants), 0.3 (groundwater), 0.06 (animals), and 0.7 (misc) . PCNB half-lives (and corresponding application rate, kg/ha) in laboratory soil experiments were: 699 days (60), 213 days (60), 535 days (10), and 425 days (10) . Average PCNB half-life in 2 field locations (different soil types) in Denmark was 434 days . PCNB loss in 3 California soils in laboratory experiments followed first-order kinetics . The half-life of PCNB was 4.7, 7.6, and 9.7 months for Columbia fine sandy loam, Sacramento clay, and Staten peaty muck, respectively . PCNB (50 ug PCNB/5 g dry soil) rapidly disappeared from submerged soil . After 3 weeks of incubation, less than 1% of the originally applied PCNB remained in submerged soil, whereas 82% of the original PCNB persisted in moist soil. PCNB remained unchanged in sterilized, moist soil; however, about 44% of the PCNB disappeared from sterilized, submerged soil after 3 weeks. Loss of PCNB in nonsterilized submerged or moist soil was accompanied by an increase in pentachloroaniline (PCA), but no PCA was detected in sterilized submerged soil . In another laboratory study, PCNB (5 mg PCNB 50 g air dry soil) loss was determined in Yolo fine sandy loam . After 10 months in both sterilized and unsterilized soil, 80% of the applied PCNB was lost from the soil. Removal in the air stream accounted for 62% of the PCNB while the remaining 18% was attributed to microbial and chemical degradation. Undegraded PCNB was the major component recovered in the air stream . In a laboratory study using Hagerstown silty clay loam under anaerobic conditions (40 day incubation), PCNB loss was principally by conversion to pentachloroaniline (PCA) with some loss by volatilization and conversion to pentachlorothioanisole (PCTA) and pentachlorophenol (PCP)(6). Radiolabeled (14C) PCNB was used to study PCNB fate and distribution in Matapeake silt loam. PCNB concentration in the soil was 5.0 ppm and incubation was at 25 deg C for 60 days. The percent 14C recovered and its source was: 67.2 as PCNB, 10.3 as pentachloroaniline (PCA), 8.2 as pentachlorothioanisole (PCTA), and 14.3 of unknown origin(7). In soil treated with PCNB and incubated at 30 deg C, 40-58% of the PCNB degraded in 18 weeks; however, no mineralization occurred(8). PCNB residues decreased from 14.6 to 2.20 ppm in 6 months in a lettuce area in Germany. Brassicol (PCNB) was applied according to producers recommendations(9). In a study conducted in Japan, 2 kg PCNB/ha was applied and mixed into the top 10 cm of soil (lithosole and gray lowland soil). After 1 month, 5% of the PCNB had degraded in the top 5 cm; after 8.4 months, 100% had degraded(10). AQUATIC FATE: Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) added to artificial ponds had a half-life in the water of 1.8 days . The exponential decrease of PCNB concentration in the water phase was due to volatilization, adsorption to seston, absorption by biota and subsequent sedimentation as detritus . Photolysis and hydrolysis of PCNB are probably not significant degradative processes. Based upon degradation in soil, PCNB may undergo microbial transformations in aquatic systems. However, mineralization of the resulting biotransformation products will probably be slow. Biodegradation of PCNB may be an important degradative process. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: No information was found about the fate of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) in the atmosphere; however, it will probably adsorb to particulate matter and thus may be removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) was found in Cincinnati drinking water at an unspecified concn. . GROUND WATER: Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) was found in California well water at an unspecified concn. .

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