|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 610||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8100
||EPA Method 8270
||EPA Method 8310
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| DYE INTERMEDIATE; MFR PLASTICS; INSECTICIDE; FUNGICIDE
|Apparent Color|| WHITE NEEDLES; ORTHORHOMBIC BIPYRAMIDAL NEEDLES FROM
|Boiling Point|| 279 DEG C AT 760 MM HG
|Melting Point|| 95 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 154.21
|Density|| 1.0242 at 90 deg C/4 deg C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Odor detection in air, 8.0X10-2 ppm (chemically pure)
Threshhold odor concn in water at room temp: 0.08 ppm (range 0.02 to 0.22 ppm)
Odor low 0.5048 mg/cu m, odor high 0.5048 mg/cu m.
|Sensitivity Data|| IRRITATING TO EYES
IRRITATING TO SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANE.
|Environmental Impact|| Acenaphthene is a component of crude oil and a product of combustion which may be
produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Emissions from petroleum refining,
coal tar distillation, coal combustion and diesel fueled engines are major contributors of
acenaphthene to the environment. Acenaphthene is used as a chemical intermediate and may be
released to the environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of manufacturing waste
byproducts. Because of the widespread use of acenaphthene in a variety of products,
acenaphthene may also be released to the environment through landfills, municipal waste water
treatment facilities and waste incinerators. Acenaphthene should biodegrade rapidly in the
environment. The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthene in aerobic soil and surface
waters range from 10 to 60 days and 1 to 25 days, respectively. However, acenaphthene may
persist under anaerobic conditions or at high concn due to toxicity to micro-organisms.
Acenaphthene is not expected to hydrolyze or bioconcentrate in the environment; yet, it should
undergo direct photolysis in sunlit environmental media. A calculated Koc range of 2065 to 3230
indicates acenaphthene will be slightly mobile in soil. In aquatic systems, acenaphthene can
partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A
Henry's Law constant of 1.55X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of
acenaphthene from environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a
model river and a model pond, the latter considers the effect of adsorption, have been estimated
to be 11 hr and 39 days, respectively. Acenaphthene is expected to exist entirely in the
vapor-phase in ambient air. In the atmosphere, the reaction with photochemically produced
hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 7.2 hr) is likely to be an important fate process. The most probable
human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or
inhalation at places where acenaphthene is produced or used. Atmospheric workplace exposures
have been documented. Non-occupational exposures would most likely occur via urban
atmospheres, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational contaminated waterways.
|Environmental Fate|| Terrestrial Fate: The transport and effects of (14)C-labeled wood preservatives (creosote
with labeled phenanthrene or acenaphthene, pentachlorophenol, and bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide)
impregnated in wood posts were examined in a terrestrial microcosm chamber (TMC-II) in
comparison to a reference compound, the insecticide dieldrin. The TMC-II contained a Willamette
Valley topsoil, ryegrass, invertebrates, and a gravid gray-tailed vole (Microtus conicaudus).
Approximately 2.5 months after introduction of the posts, 95% of the chemicals remained in the
posts. Of the material released into the ecosystem, most remained in the upper soil layer
immediately surrounding the posts. Residue accumulation by the invertebrates was highly
variable. Of the chemicals tested, creosote accumulated in the vole to the greatest extent (eg,
whole body concn of 7.2 and 37.0 ppm for phenanthrene and acenaphthene, respectively.)
TERRESTRIAL FATE: The reported biodegradation half-lives for acenaphthene in aerobic soil
range from less than 10 to 102 days . However, acenaphthene may persist under anaerobic
conditions or at high concn due to toxicity to micro-organisms . Acenaphthene is not
expected to undergo hydrolysis in soils; yet, should undergo direct photolysis in sunlit surface
soils . A calculated Koc range of 2065 to 3230(6), indicates acenaphthene will be slightly
mobile in soil(7). Monitoring data also demonstrates that acenaphthene will flow in groundwater
when spilled or deposited at high concn. A Henry's Law constant of 1.55X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at
25 deg C(8) suggests volatilization of acenaphthene from moist soils with low organic matter
AQUATIC FATE: The biotransformation half-lives for 2 mg/l of acenaphthene in pond and lake
water with decreasing amounts of suspended solids range from 20 hours to 24.8 days for zero
suspended solids . Acenaphthene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis or bioconcentrate in
environmental waters. However, acenaphthene should undergo direct photolysis in sunlit
waters . Monitoring data and an estimated Koc ranging in the slightly mobile class for soil ,
suggests acenaphthene will partition from the water column to organic matter contained in
sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 1.55X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg
C suggests volatilization of acenaphthene from environmental waters may be important .
Based on this Henry's Law Constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been
estimated to be 11 hr(5,SRC). The volatilization half-life from an model pond, which considers
the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be about 39 days(6,SRC).
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 2.5X10-3 mm Hg at 25 deg C ,
acenaphthene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air . Acenaphthene
should undergo direct photolysis in the atmosphere. The vapor phase reaction of acenaphthene
with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is also likely to be an important fate process in
ambient air. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of acenaphthene with photochemically
produced hydroxyl radicals has been measured to be 5.4X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C;
which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 7.2 hours at an atmospheric concn of
5X10 5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm . However, acenaphthene adsorbed onto particulate matter
may be stable against photo-oxidation .
|Drinking Water Impact|| In water extracted by macroreticular resins from a contaminated well in Ames, Iowa,
investigators isolated acenaphthene at a level of 1.7 ppm.
An analysis of the settling pond water from a wood preserving plant showed acenaphthene
present at a level of 0.2 mg/l.
DRINKING WATER: Two of five samples of Nordic tap water contained acenaphthene at
concn of 7.4 to 14.0 ng/l . Acenaphthene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking
water(2,3) for a survey of US cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co,
CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA,
and Seattle . For a survey of drinking water supplies in the UK, acenaphthene was detected in
the treated water at 2 of 14 water treatment facilities .
SURFACE WATER: Acenaphthene is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Ontario, Erie,
Michigan and Superior . Acenaphthene had a median concn less than 10,000 ug/l and tested
positive in 4.0% of 883 ambient waters in surface waters from EPA's STORET database . The
maximum concn of acenaphthene reported for waters of the Rhine River, Netherlands was 30
ng/l(3,4). Acenaphthene was detected at 3 of 4 sampling stations along the Mississippi River at an
average concn of 2 ng/l . Acenaphthene was also detected in Yellow River water, Peoples
Republic of China(6). Ohio River water contained acenaphthene at the cities of Wheeling,
Huntington and Cincinnati(7).
GROUNDWATER: Acenaphthene was detected in a coal tar contaminated aquifer in St Louis
Park, MN at concn ranging from 0.01 to 72 mg/kg sediment . Stored wastes from a former
pine-tar manufacturing site in Gainesville, FL contaminated surrounding ground waters with
concn of acenaphthene ranging from 3 to 170 ug/l . Wood preserving chemicals at Pensacola,
FL are responsible for an acenaphthene concn of 0.76 mg/l at ground water depth of 6 m .
Acenaphthene was identified in the ground water leachate from the Waterloo and Northbay
landfills, Ontario, Canada at concn ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 ug/l . Groundwater samples from
nearby the Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained
acenaphthene(6). Acenaphthene was found in ground water contaminated by the waste lagoon of
a wood creosote impregnation plant in East TX(7). One of 7 ground water samples from nearby
the "Valley of Drums", KY contained acenaphthene at a concn of 12 ug/l(8).
RAIN/SNOW: Rain water in Portland, OR contained acenaphthene at concn ranging from 2.5 to
6.6 ng/l between Feb 12 and April 12, 1984 . Snow pack from the city of St Marie, Canada
contained acenaphthene at concn ranging from less than 0.050 to 0.098 ug/l .
EFFL: Acenaphthene was identified as a stack emission and a component of fly ash(1-3) at a
concn of 1.8 ng/g from municipal waste incinerators. Six of 8 samples of fly ash from a
municipal waste incinerator in Ontario, Canada contained acenaphthene at concn of less than 0.5,
less than 0.5, 3, 5, 5, 21 and 28 ng/g . On July 28, 1978 and Nov 15-21 1980, the final effluent
from the Los Angeles Co municipal wastewater treatment plant contained acenaphthene at
average concn of 7 and less than 10 ug/l(6). Acenaphthene was identified as a product of coal
combustion(7). Diesel fueled engines also emit acenaphthene(8).
The dissolved air floatation effluent of a Class B oil refinery contained acenaphthene at a concn
of 3 ng/g . Reactor tar from a coal gasification plant contained acenaphthene at a concn of 9.0
mg/g . Leachate from coal piles in IL contained acenaphthene at concn of 1 ug/l . Coal tar
leachate was also found to contain acenaphthene . Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion plant
operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN contained acenaphthene in the volatile fraction .
Leachate from Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained
acenaphthene(6). Emissions from the pouring, cooling and shakeout of iron castings contained
acenaphthene at an average concn of 230 ug/kg(7). Effluent from a textile finishing operation also
contained acenaphthene(8). Acenaphthene had a median concn less than 10.000 ug/l and tested
positive in 3.6% of 1,253 industrial discharges waste waters from the EPA's STORET