SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 85449
CASRN 85-44-9
SynonymsPhthalic anhydride
1,3-Isobenzofurandione
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid anhydride
Molecular FormulaC8H4O3

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use MFR PHTHALEINS, PHTHALATES, BENZOIC ACID, SYNTHETIC INDIGO, ARTIFICIAL RESINS (GLYPTAL). CHEM INT FOR DIOCTYL PHTHALATES-EG, DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL), OTHER PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS-EG, DIBUTYL, INSECT REPELLENTS-EG, DIMETHYL PHTHALATE, UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS, ALKYD RESINS, DYES AND PIGMENTS, ISATOIC ANHYDRIDE, HALOGENATED PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDES, DIALLYL PHTHALATE, URETHANE POLYESTER POLYOLS, PHENOLPHTHALEIN; CURING AGENT FOR EPOXY RESINS. Rubber retarder Scorch inhibitor for rubber stocks. Alkyd resins, plasticizers, hardener for resins, polyesters, synthesis of phenolphthalein and other phthaleins, many other dyes, chlorinated products, pharmaceutical intermediates, insecticides, diethyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, laboratory reagent. FORMERLY IT WAS USED IN THE SYNTHESIS OF ALIZARINE, XANTHENE, ANTHRAQUINONE & RHODAMINE.
Consumption Patterns CHEM INT FOR: PHTHALATE PLACTICIZERS, 53%; UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS, 22%; ALKYD RESINS, 19%; OTHER USES (EG, CHEM INT FOR DYES, RUBBER RETARDER), 6% (1983) End use pattern: phthalate plasticizers, 50%; unsaturated polyesters, 25%; alkyd resins, 15%; miscellaneous, 10% (1985) CHEMICAL PROFILE: Phthalic Anhydride. Plasticizers, 48%; polyester resins, 23%; alkyd resins, 19%; miscellaneous, 5%; exports, 5%. CHEMICAL PROFILE: Phthalic anhydride. Demand: 1988: 1,050 million lb; 1989: 950 million lb; 1993 projected/: 1,190 million lb. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 30 million lb last year.) TODAY 60% OF PRODUCTION IS USED AS A PLASTICIZER IN VINYL CHLORIDE POLYMERIZATION. ABOUT 30% OF OUTPUT IS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SATURATED & UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESINS, FOR PESTICIDES & AS CONSTITUENTS OF CERTAIN ESSENCES & PERFUMES. THE REMAINING 10% IS EMPLOYED IN THE PRODUCTION OF ALKYD RESINS USED IN PAINTS & LACQUERS, OF PHTHALOCYANINE DYES & ALSO FOR THE PREPARATION OF BENZOIC ACID.
Apparent Color WHITE, LUSTROUS NEEDLES; Colorless or pale yellow solid flakes; Colorless needles; monoclinic or rhombic prisms; White needles from alcohol & benzene
Odor MILD; Characteristic choking odor, acrid
Boiling Point 295 DEG C
Melting Point 130.8 DEG C
Molecular Weight 148.11
Density 1.20 @ 135 deg C (liquid), 1.53 @ 20 deg C (solid)
Odor Threshold Concentration Air: 0.053 ul/l; odor safety class C; C= Less than 50% of distracted persons perceive warning of TLV. 0.32-0.72 mg/cu m
Sensitivity Data DUST VAPOR OR FUMES ARE IRRITATING TO EYES .
Environmental Impact Phthalic anhydride release to the atmosphere could result from its manufacture and use in many products and its use in the manufacture of other commercial materials, polyester resins, and alkyd resins, phthaleins, phthalates, benzoic acid, sythetic indigo, artifical resins (glyptal), synthetic fibers, dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, insecticides and chlorinated products. It is released from industrial plants which produce phthalic anhydride by oxidation of xylenes and naphthalene; from the incineration of industrial refuse and water sludges and slurries from plastic products and other manufacturing processes; phthalic anhydride has been detected in leachate from municipal and separate industrial wastes containing plastics. If phthalic anhydride is released to soil, it will not be expected to sorb to the soil. It is expected to hydrolyze in moist soils. If it is released to water it will not be expected to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms, sorb to sediments, or to evaporate. Hydrolysis will be a major fate process based on an estimated half-life of 1.5 minutes. If it is released to the atmosphere it may be susceptible to direct photolysis. The estimated vapor-phase half-life in the atmosphere is about 32 days as a result of ring addition of photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Exposure to phthalic anhydride result mainly from occupational exposure involving the inhalation of contaminated air.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If phthalic anhydride is released to soil it will not be expected to sorb to the soil. Phthalic anhdyride is expected to hydrolyze in moist soils which will prevent its leaching to the groundwater. AQUATIC FATE: If phthalic anhydride is released to water it will not be expected to biconcentrate in aquatic organisms, sorb to sediments, or evaporate. Hydrolysis will be a major fate process based on an estimated half-life of approximately 1.5 minutes calculated using a reported observed rate constant of 7.9X10-3/sec for hydrolysis in aqueous solution at 25 deg C . Phthalic anhydride absorbs light >290 nm and therefore may be susceptible to direct photolysis. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If phthalic anhydride is released to the atmosphere it may be susceptible to direct photolysis since it absorbs light >290 nm. The estimated vapor-phase half-life in the atmosphere is about 32 days as a result of addition of photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Identified, not quantified in 1 of 14 treated waters, included treated water from rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater (positive sample was a treated groundwater after distribution; phthalic anhydride was not reported present in the sources treated groundwater) . Identified, not quantified in drinking water in the US and in unidentified drinking water . Identified, not quantified, in drinking water concentrates . US, 10 sites, 10% pos, identified, not quantified (only pos, Cincinnati, OH) . EFFL: Identified, not quantified, in advanced waste treatment concentrates . Identified industrial point sources include industrial plants which oxidize xylenes and naphthalene for phthalic anhydride production; gross estimate of discharge 5,000 tons/yr; waste treatment and disposal sources: incineration of industrial refuse and water sludges and slurries from plastic products adn other manufacturing processes; leaches from municipal and industrial wastes containing plastics . Identified, not quantified, in effluents from two unspecified chemical plants .

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