SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

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Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 85687
CASRN 85-68-7
SynonymsButyl benzyl phthalate
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl phenylmethyl ester
Analytical Methods EPA Method 525.2
EPA Method 606
EPA Method 625
EPA Method 8060
EPA Method 8061
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC19H20O4

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use ORGANIC INTERMEDIATE PLASTICIZER FOR PVC-BASED FLOORING PRODUCTS, POLYVINYL ACETATE EMULSION ADHESIVES, OTHER PLASTICS, EG, ETHYL CELLULOSE, IN COATINGS, EG, FOR AUTOMOBILES Plasticizer for polyvinyl and cellulose resins.
Consumption Patterns ALL PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS: 89% IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE RESINS; 3% IN OTHER VINYL RESINS; 3% IN CELLULOSE ESTER PLASTICS; 3% IN SYNTHETIC ELASTOMERS & OTHER POLYMERS; 2% IN OTHER APPLICATIONS (1974). PHTHALATE ESTERS
Apparent Color CLEAR, OILY LIQUID
Odor SLIGHT ODOR
Boiling Point 370 DEG C (698 DEG F)
Melting Point -35 DEG C
Molecular Weight 312.39
Density 1.113-1.121 @ 25 DEG C/25 DEG C
Sensitivity Data PROLONGED CONTACT WITH LIQUID CAUSES SOME IRRITATION OF EYES & SKIN.
Environmental Impact Over 100 million pounds of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were produced in the US in 1978. BBP is used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl and cellulosic resins, primarily in poly(vinyl chloride). Possible sources of BBP release to the environment are from its manufacture, distribution, and PVC blending operations; however, release from consumer products is expected to be minimal. Most BBP releases will be to soil and water and not to the air. BBP released to soil is expected to adsorb (Koc 65-350) and not to leach extensively although it has been detected in groundwater. BBP released to aquatic systems will adsorb to sediments and biota but will not volatilize significantly (Henry's Law constant <1X10-6 atm/mol cu m) except under windy conditions or from shallow rivers. Biodegradation appears to be the primary fate mechanism for BBP. BBP is readily biodegraded in activated sludge, semicontinous activated sludge, salt water, lake water, and under anaerobic conditions. For example, at an initial concentration of 1 mg/l in a lake water microcosm, primary degradation accounted for >95% loss of BBP in 7 days; after 28 days, 51-65% of BBP had mineralized (ultimate degradation). Over 66,000 US workers are potentially exposed to BBP while a larger population of the US may be exposed to lower concentrations of BBP found in some drinking waters. .
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: A measured soil adsorption constant for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is 68 - 350 ; thus if released to land it will sorb to soil and should not leach appreciably although it has been detected in groundwater. The most significant fate process for BBP in soil will be biodegradation . Because of its low volatility (8.6X10-6 mm Hg ), evaporation of BBP from soil is not expected to be significant. AQUATIC FATE: Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has a log Kow of 4.77 . Thus, BBP released to waters will partition to solids such as sediment and biota . The primary fate mechanism for BBP will be biodegradation . At an initial concentration of 1 mg/l in a lake water microcosm, primary degradation accounted for >95% loss of BBP in 7 days; after 28 days, 51-65% of it had mineralized (ultimate degradation) . BBP has an estimated Henry's Law constant of <1.0X10-6 atm/mol cu m ; thus volatilization from water will not be significant except from shallow rivers or during high wind activity(3,SRC). Photodegradation and hydrolysis will not be significant since the half-lives for these processes are greater than 100 days . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) released to the atmosphere has an estimated half-life of 1-5 days . However, volatilization of BBP to the atmosphere is not expected to be a significant transport mechanism since its vapor pressure is only 8.6X10-6 mm Hg at 20 deg C and its Henry's Law constant is <1.0X10-6 atm/mol cu m . Aquatic Fate: the two transport mechanisms that appear to be most important for the phthalates in the aquatic environment are adsorption onto suspended solids and particulate matter and complexation with natural organic substances, such as fulvic acid, to form water-soluble complexes or emulsions. Photolysis, oxidation, and hydrolysis are too slow to be environmentally significant. The second order rate constants from the alkaline hydrolysis of a group of phthalate esters were measured; the corresponding half-lives in neutral water ranged from 3.2 years for dimethyl phthalate to 2,000 years for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Volatilization is not considered to be a competitive transport process. The transport of the phthalate esters will be dependent upon the hydrogeologic conditions of the aquatic system. Phthalate esters Aquatic Fate: Phthalates esterified with short-chain alkyl groups, biochemical transformations will compete with export in the ecosystems with long retention times (ie ponds or lakes). For phthalates esterified with larger alkyl groups such as DEHP, transformation processes are slow. Export will be the dominant process for all phthalate esters entering a river, regardless of chain length. Phthalate esters with alkyl chains of intermediate length exhibit intermediate behavior. The oceans may be considered the ultimate sink for phthalate esters introduced into unimpeded rivers. /Phthalate esters Aquatic fate: Phthalate esters have been identified in living matter, and data collected from field and laboratory studies indicate that they can be taken up and accumulated by a variety of organisms. The phthalates are degraded by microbiota and metabolized by fish and animals; they are not expected to biomagnify. The highest concentrations would be expected at intermediate levels of the food chain (eg invertebrates) rather than at the top as occurs with chemicals such as DDT. Thus, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and biodegradation are important aquatic fate processes for phthalate esters. Phthalate esters Atmospheric Fate: The fate of phthalate esters in air is expected to be controlled by hydroxyl radical attack. Adsorption onto particulates and rainout are expected to be less important fate processes. Phthalate esters Terrestrial Fate: Little information is available on the fate of phthalate esters in soil, even though the primary point of entry into the environment is the soil (via landfills). The migration of phthalate esters out of plastics is slow. The amount available for transport or degradation is expected to be low. However, the formation of soluble complexes may increase their mobility. The phthalate esters may also be subject to biodegradation; however, the degradation rates measured have been highly variable. Phthalate esters It is well documented that the photolysis of hydrogen dioxide generates OH radicals which play an important role in explaining the degradation of environmental chemicals in aqueous medium. In the following work relative reaction rate constants of some representative substances including diethyl phthalate were determined with wavelengths above 290 nm in the presence of hydrogen dioxide. The results show, that the used system is suitable to check the OH radical reactivity of organic compounds under natural conditions.
Drinking Water Impact SURFACE WATER: Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was found in the Delaware River at 0.6 ppb and at 2.4 ug/l in Mississippi River near St. Louis . BBP was also detected in Lake Michigan water . The median BBP concentration from 1220 STORET data points was <10 ug/l for ambient US waters . BBP concentrations in the Illinois River, the Mississippi River (below St. Louis), and Lake Superior averaged 0.7, 0.3 and 0.3 ug/l, respectively . GROUND WATER: Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was detected in 5 out of 39 public water system wells in New York State; the highest concentration found was 38 ppb (6). BBP was also detected in groundwater near a landfill(7). DRINKING WATER: BPP was found but not quantified in Cincinnati drinking water(8). Some maximum reported concn of BBP in drinking water were: 0.1 ppb in Philadelphia , 1.8 ug/l in New Orleans(9), and 38 ppb (well water) in New York State(10). Although ambient water monitoring data are limited, results suggest that ambient levels of phthalate esters are generally less than 10 ug/l. Phthalate esters The organic water quality throughout a poultry processing waste water treatment and renovation system, which included several points of chlorination, was investigated. The main classes of organic compounds identified were substituted phthalates and adipates, and (methylated) fatty acids and their amide derivatives. Chloroform concentrations were < 8 ug/l throughout the renovation system. Total organic halide, total organic carbon and endotoxin concentrations in the final renovated water were slightly high when compared to typical levels occurring in finished waters from other systems. As treatment progressed, the contribution of compounds of molecular size > 400 daltons to organic carbon content decreased. Based on these and previous results, there probably would be an undue health risk if the renovated water would be recycled and reused for a trial period. EFFL: Effluent from a sewage treatment plant contained 100 ppb butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) . The median BBP concentration from 1337 STORET data points was <6 ug/l for US industrial effluents . BBP concentration was 10 ug/l in urban stormwater from Lake Quinsigamend, MA .

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