SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 87865
CASRN 87-86-5
SynonymsPentachlorophenol
PCP
Phenol, pentachloro-
Penta
Analytical Methods EPA Method 515.3
EPA Method 525
EPA Method 555
EPA Method 604
EPA Method 625.2
EPA Method 8040
EPA Method 8151
EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC6HCl5O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Use HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN THE PRESERVATION OF STARCHES, DEXTRINS, GLUES AS A MOLLUSCICIDE TO INHIBIT FERMENTATION IN VARIOUS MATERIALS REGISTERED HOMEOWNER USES INCL MAINTENANCE OF BOATS, TRAILERS, STATION WAGONS, SIDING, FENCES, OUTDOOR FURNITURE & SIMILAR ARTICLES. THERE ARE A LARGE NUMBER OF REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL USES, SUCH AS CONSTRUCTION OF BOATS AND BUILDINGS, MOLD CONTROL IN PETROLEUM DRILLING & PRODN, & IN TREATMENT OF CABLE COVERINGS, CANVAS BELTING, NETS, CONSTRUCTION LUMBER & POLES. OTHER USES INCL INCORPORATION IN PAINTS, PULP STOCK, IN PULP & PAPER, COOLING TOWER WATER, HARDBOARD & PARTICLE BOARD. WOOD PRESERVATIVE (FUNGICIDE) CHEM INT FOR SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE SOIL FUMIGANT FOR TERMITES HERBICIDE FOR WEEDS & PREHARVEST DEFOLIANT FOR SEED CROPS SRP: FORMER USE SEED TREATING AGENT FOR BEANS HERBICIDE FOR CONTROL OF MOSS-EG, ON LAWNS & ROOFS FUNGICIDE-EG, FOR USE ON PRUNES PRESERVATIVE-EG, FOR PAINTS, LEATHER, TEXTILES & INKS SLIMICIDE & ALGAECIDE IN INDUST APPLICATIONS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT IN DISINFECTANTS & CLEANERS Used as a preharvest defoliant on selected crops SRP: Former use In various products, pentachlorophenol has been used as a herbicide, algacide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. As a wood preservative, it is commonly applied as a 0.1% solution in mineral spirits, NO 2 fuel oil, or kerosene. It is used in pressure treatment of lumber at 5% concentration. Weed killers contain higher concentrations. PCP is no longer available for over-the-counter sale in the USA.
Consumption Patterns WOOD PRESERVATIVE (INDUSTRIAL), 79%; CHEM INT FOR SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE, 12%; OTHER (INCL CONSUMER WOOD PRESERVATIVE USE), 9% (1980) Wood Preservative, 90%; Sodium Pentachlorophenate, 10% (1983)
Apparent Color COLORLESS CRYSTALS (PURE); DARK GREYISH POWDER OR FLAKES (CRUDE PRODUCT) ; Solid beads or flakes ; White monoclinic, crystalline solid ; Needle-like crystals
Odor PHENOLIC ODOR ; VERY PUNGENT ODOR ONLY WHEN HOT
Boiling Point 309-310 DEG C (DECOMP)
Melting Point 190-191 DEG C
Molecular Weight 266.35
Density 1.978 AT 22 DEG C/4 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration Odor thresholds for PCP soln at 30 deg and 60 deg C were 857 and 12,000 ug/l, respectively. Detection: 1.6 mg/l.
Sensitivity Data Dust or vapor irritates skin. Eye and skin irritant. All chlorophenol dusts are irritating to the respiratory tract. Chlorophenols Excessively treated interior surfaces may be a source of exposure sufficient to cause irritation of eyes, nose, and throat.
Environmental Impact Pentachlorophenol is used in large quantities as a wood preservative for utility poles, crossarms, and fenceposts. These uses may result in some environmental releases from the wood and during spills. Releases to soil can decrease in concentrations due to slow biodegradation and leaching into groundwater. If released in water, pentachlorophenol will adsorb to sediment, photodegrade (especially at higher pHs) and slowly biodegrade. Bioconcentration in fish will be moderate. In air, pentachlorophenol will be lost due to photolysis and reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Human's will be occupationally exposed to pentachlorophenol via inhalation and dermal contact primarily in situations where they use this preservative or are in contact with treated wood product. The general population will be exposed primarily from ingesting food contaminated with pentachlorophenol.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: Results of an environmental partitioning model indicate that pentachlorophenol partitions mainly in soil (96.5%) . Photolysis and hydrolysis of pentachlorophenol do not appear to be significant processes in soil. Pentachlorophenol released to soil will biodegrade with half-lives of weeks to months. If the pentachlorophenol dissociates in soil (possible because the pKa= 4.74), little volatilization will occur but leaching to groundwater is possible (dependent upon pH of soil). A survey of 4 RCRA sites that contained wood preserving plants with surface impoundments indicated that all had some groundwater contamination extending down 20 to 60 ft . However, considerable amounts of the formulated pesticide applied to soil has been shown to volatilize. AQUATIC FATE: Pentachlorophenol released to water undergoes photolysis(1-2). A reported half-life for photolysis of pentachlorophenol is 0.86 hrs . Biodegradation probably becomes significant after a period of acclimation (may be several weeks). Adsorption to sediments will be considerable. Hydrolysis and volatilization are not important processes in water. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Pentachlorophenol has been detected associated with particulate matter in air. This pentachlorophenol will be lost by gravitational settling. Vapor phase pentachlorophenol will be lost by photolysis and to a leasser extent, reaction with photohchemically produced hydroxyl radicals. The loss from these process in noon-day summer sunshine is 6.2 and 1.5%hr, respectively(1,SRC).
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Corvallis, Oregon - 0.06 parts/billion . DRINKING WATER: Concentrations of 98 ppt have been detected in Dade County, FL, municipal drinking water. GROUNDWATER: Levels up to 24 ppm have been detected in wells near a sawmill in Hayfork, CA. GROUNDWATER: Germany - 6.9% occurrence . Pentachlorophenol was detected in groundwater in monitoring program in California, Oregon and Minnesota . In Minnesota 3% of wells monitored by the Agriculture Department had detectable pentachlorophenol with a maximum level of 0.64 ppb. In Oregon, 1.4% of tested wells contained pentachlorophenol and the maximum concentration was 0.12 ppb . Concentrations of pentachlorophenyl in groundwater were 1047 and 152 ppb at Havertown PCP site, Havertown, PA and Doepke disposal site, Holliday, KS, respectively . SURFACE WATER: Netherlands - 5 rivers - 0.41 to 9.9 ppb(1,2) Japan - urban rivers 0.1 to 10 parts/trillion ; Williamette R, Oregon 0.1-0.7 ppb , Lake Erie 0-1.7 ppb ; SEAWATER: Gulf of Mexico 4.3-11 parts/trillion(6) Germany 0.02-1.30 parts/trillion(7). Pentachlorophenol was the only halogenated phenolic compound found in more than 20% of the raw water samples from 40 potable water treatment plants across Canada in the fall and winter samples at levels up to 53 ng/l with mean values of 1.9 and 2.8 ng/l, respectively(8). Four sites located in the Scheldt estuary in North West Beligium and South West Netherlands had concentrations of 0.1, 0.18, and 0.02 ppb, respectively(9). EFFL: Oregon cities sewage treatment plant effluent 1-4 ppb . Detected in the effluents of the following industries (industry - max concn, ppb): auto and other laundries - 27, coal mining - 3, iron and steel manufacturing - 25, leather tanning and finishing - 3100, electrical/electronic components - 10, foundries - 140, photographic equipment/supplies - 350, pharmaceutical manufacturing - 110, paint and ink formulation - 490, pulp and paperboard mills - 1400, rubber processing - 10, steam electric power plants - 6.5, textile mills - 15, timber products processing - 8300 . 4.6 ppb mean concn reported for organic manufacturing/plastics . Waste from a municipal compositions facility on Long Island, NY has a concentration range of 7-210 ppb . Effluent from a pulp and paper bleach plant, aerated lagoon, and treated effluent discharging into a river on site contained concentrations of pentachlorophenol of 3.1, 1.3 and 0.6 ppb, respectively . Primary-treated and municipal wastewater from the Iona Island treatment plant in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada contained pentachlorophenol concentrations ranging from 0.4-13.2 ppb .

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