|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 515.3||EPA Method 525
||EPA Method 555
||EPA Method 604
||EPA Method 625.2
||EPA Method 8040
||EPA Method 8151
||EPA Method 8270
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN THE PRESERVATION OF STARCHES,
AS A MOLLUSCICIDE
TO INHIBIT FERMENTATION IN VARIOUS MATERIALS
REGISTERED HOMEOWNER USES INCL MAINTENANCE OF BOATS, TRAILERS,
STATION WAGONS, SIDING, FENCES, OUTDOOR FURNITURE & SIMILAR ARTICLES.
THERE ARE A LARGE NUMBER OF REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL USES, SUCH AS
CONSTRUCTION OF BOATS AND BUILDINGS, MOLD CONTROL IN PETROLEUM
DRILLING & PRODN, & IN TREATMENT OF CABLE COVERINGS, CANVAS BELTING,
NETS, CONSTRUCTION LUMBER & POLES. OTHER USES INCL INCORPORATION
IN PAINTS, PULP STOCK, IN PULP & PAPER, COOLING TOWER WATER,
HARDBOARD & PARTICLE BOARD.
WOOD PRESERVATIVE (FUNGICIDE)
CHEM INT FOR SODIUM PENTACHLOROPHENATE
SOIL FUMIGANT FOR TERMITES
HERBICIDE FOR WEEDS & PREHARVEST DEFOLIANT FOR SEED CROPS SRP:
SEED TREATING AGENT FOR BEANS
HERBICIDE FOR CONTROL OF MOSS-EG, ON LAWNS & ROOFS
FUNGICIDE-EG, FOR USE ON PRUNES
PRESERVATIVE-EG, FOR PAINTS, LEATHER, TEXTILES & INKS
SLIMICIDE & ALGAECIDE IN INDUST APPLICATIONS
ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT IN DISINFECTANTS & CLEANERS
Used as a preharvest defoliant on selected crops SRP: Former use
In various products, pentachlorophenol has been used as a herbicide, algacide, defoliant, wood
preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. As a wood preservative, it is commonly
applied as a 0.1% solution in mineral spirits, NO 2 fuel oil, or kerosene. It is used in pressure
treatment of lumber at 5% concentration. Weed killers contain higher concentrations. PCP is no
longer available for over-the-counter sale in the USA.
|Consumption Patterns|| WOOD PRESERVATIVE (INDUSTRIAL), 79%; CHEM INT FOR SODIUM
PENTACHLOROPHENATE, 12%; OTHER (INCL CONSUMER WOOD PRESERVATIVE
USE), 9% (1980)
Wood Preservative, 90%; Sodium Pentachlorophenate, 10% (1983)
|Apparent Color|| COLORLESS CRYSTALS (PURE); DARK GREYISH POWDER OR FLAKES
(CRUDE PRODUCT) ; Solid beads or flakes ; White monoclinic, crystalline solid ; Needle-like
|Odor|| PHENOLIC ODOR ; VERY PUNGENT ODOR ONLY WHEN HOT
|Boiling Point|| 309-310 DEG C (DECOMP)
|Melting Point|| 190-191 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 266.35
|Density|| 1.978 AT 22 DEG C/4 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Odor thresholds for PCP soln at 30 deg and 60 deg C were 857 and 12,000 ug/l,
Detection: 1.6 mg/l.
|Sensitivity Data|| Dust or vapor irritates skin.
Eye and skin irritant.
All chlorophenol dusts are irritating to the respiratory tract. Chlorophenols
Excessively treated interior surfaces may be a source of exposure sufficient to cause irritation of
eyes, nose, and throat.
|Environmental Impact|| Pentachlorophenol is used in large quantities as a wood preservative for utility poles,
crossarms, and fenceposts. These uses may result in some environmental releases from the wood
and during spills. Releases to soil can decrease in concentrations due to slow biodegradation and
leaching into groundwater. If released in water, pentachlorophenol will adsorb to sediment,
photodegrade (especially at higher pHs) and slowly biodegrade. Bioconcentration in fish will be
moderate. In air, pentachlorophenol will be lost due to photolysis and reaction with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Human's will be occupationally exposed to
pentachlorophenol via inhalation and dermal contact primarily in situations where they use this
preservative or are in contact with treated wood product. The general population will be exposed
primarily from ingesting food contaminated with pentachlorophenol.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: Results of an environmental partitioning model indicate that
pentachlorophenol partitions mainly in soil (96.5%) . Photolysis and hydrolysis of
pentachlorophenol do not appear to be significant processes in soil. Pentachlorophenol released to
soil will biodegrade with half-lives of weeks to months. If the pentachlorophenol dissociates in
soil (possible because the pKa= 4.74), little volatilization will occur but leaching to groundwater
is possible (dependent upon pH of soil). A survey of 4 RCRA sites that contained wood
preserving plants with surface impoundments indicated that all had some groundwater
contamination extending down 20 to 60 ft . However, considerable amounts of the formulated
pesticide applied to soil has been shown to volatilize.
AQUATIC FATE: Pentachlorophenol released to water undergoes photolysis(1-2). A reported
half-life for photolysis of pentachlorophenol is 0.86 hrs . Biodegradation probably becomes
significant after a period of acclimation (may be several weeks). Adsorption to sediments will be
considerable. Hydrolysis and volatilization are not important processes in water.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Pentachlorophenol has been detected associated with particulate matter
in air. This pentachlorophenol will be lost by gravitational settling. Vapor phase
pentachlorophenol will be lost by photolysis and to a leasser extent, reaction with
photohchemically produced hydroxyl radicals. The loss from these process in noon-day summer
sunshine is 6.2 and 1.5%hr, respectively(1,SRC).
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Corvallis, Oregon - 0.06 parts/billion .
DRINKING WATER: Concentrations of 98 ppt have been detected in Dade County, FL,
municipal drinking water. GROUNDWATER: Levels up to 24 ppm have been detected in wells
near a sawmill in Hayfork, CA.
GROUNDWATER: Germany - 6.9% occurrence . Pentachlorophenol was detected in
groundwater in monitoring program in California, Oregon and Minnesota . In Minnesota 3% of
wells monitored by the Agriculture Department had detectable pentachlorophenol with a
maximum level of 0.64 ppb. In Oregon, 1.4% of tested wells contained pentachlorophenol and the
maximum concentration was 0.12 ppb . Concentrations of pentachlorophenyl in groundwater
were 1047 and 152 ppb at Havertown PCP site, Havertown, PA and Doepke disposal site,
Holliday, KS, respectively .
SURFACE WATER: Netherlands - 5 rivers - 0.41 to 9.9 ppb(1,2) Japan - urban rivers 0.1 to 10
parts/trillion ; Williamette R, Oregon 0.1-0.7 ppb , Lake Erie 0-1.7 ppb ; SEAWATER:
Gulf of Mexico 4.3-11 parts/trillion(6) Germany 0.02-1.30 parts/trillion(7). Pentachlorophenol
was the only halogenated phenolic compound found in more than 20% of the raw water samples
from 40 potable water treatment plants across Canada in the fall and winter samples at levels up
to 53 ng/l with mean values of 1.9 and 2.8 ng/l, respectively(8). Four sites located in the Scheldt
estuary in North West Beligium and South West Netherlands had concentrations of 0.1, 0.18, and
0.02 ppb, respectively(9).
EFFL: Oregon cities sewage treatment plant effluent 1-4 ppb . Detected in the effluents of the
following industries (industry - max concn, ppb): auto and other laundries - 27, coal mining - 3,
iron and steel manufacturing - 25, leather tanning and finishing - 3100, electrical/electronic
components - 10, foundries - 140, photographic equipment/supplies - 350, pharmaceutical
manufacturing - 110, paint and ink formulation - 490, pulp and paperboard mills - 1400, rubber
processing - 10, steam electric power plants - 6.5, textile mills - 15, timber products processing -
8300 . 4.6 ppb mean concn reported for organic manufacturing/plastics . Waste from a
municipal compositions facility on Long Island, NY has a concentration range of 7-210 ppb .
Effluent from a pulp and paper bleach plant, aerated lagoon, and treated effluent discharging into
a river on site contained concentrations of pentachlorophenol of 3.1, 1.3 and 0.6 ppb,
respectively . Primary-treated and municipal wastewater from the Iona Island treatment plant in
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada contained pentachlorophenol concentrations ranging from
0.4-13.2 ppb .