/ Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas #88722 88-72-2
SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 88722
CASRN 88-72-2
Synonyms2-NITROTOLUENE
Methyl-2-nitrobenzene; o-Methylnitrobenzene
Molecular FormulaC7H7NO2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

UseFOR PRODUCTION OF TOLUIDINE, TOLIDINE, FUCHSINE, AND VARIOUS SYNTHETIC DYES. [R1]
Apparent ColorYellowish liquid @ordinary temp
Odorweak aromatic
Boiling Point 222 DEG C
Melting Point -9.5 DEG C (needles); -2.9 DEG C (crystals)
Molecular Weight 137.13
MiscThe major hazards encountered in the use and handling of 2-nitrotoluene stem from its toxicologic properties and explosivity. Toxic by all routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption), exposure to this bitter-almond-smelling, yellowish liquid may occur from its use in the manufacture of toluidine, tolidine, fuchsine, azo dyes, sulfur dyes, rubber chemicals, and agricultural chemicals. Effects from exposure may include contact burns to the skin and eyes, headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, shortness-of-breath, tachycardia, and methemoglobinemia. The onset of symptoms may be delayed up to 4 hours. OSHA has set a time-weighted-average (TWA) limit of 2 ppm as a final rule to become effective December 31, 1992. Local exhaust ventilation should be applied to control airborne 2-nitrotoluene to permissible limits. In activities and situations where over-exposure may occur,wear a positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus and chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the shipper or manufacturer. If contact should occur, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes and wash exposed skin thoroughly with soap and water. Contaminated clothing should be removed and left at the site for cleaning. While 2-nitrotoluene does not ignite easily, it may burn with the production of irritating or poisonous gases. Also, containers of this substance may explode violently in the heat of a fire. For fires involving 2-nitrotoluene, extinguish with dry chemical, CO2, water spray, fog, or standard foam. Fight fire from as far a distance as possible, and if fire is advanced, evacuate the area. Dike fire control water. 2-Nitrotoluene should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area, away from sources of ignition, strong oxidizers, and sulfuric acid. For small spills of 2-nitrotoluene, take up with vermiculite, dry sand, or earth and place into containers for later disposal. Large spills on land should be diked far ahead of the spill and not allowed to enter water sources or sewers. Spills into bodies of water should be trapped at the bottom with sand bag barriers and removed with suction hoses, or treated with activated carbon and the resulting immobilized masses removed with mechanical dredges or lifts. Health Hazards: Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may give off poisonous gases and cause water pollution. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] Fire or Explosion: Some of these materials may burn, but none of them ignites readily. Container may explode violently in heat of fire. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] Emergency Action: Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind, out of low areas, and ventilate closed spaces before entering. Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the shipper or manufacturer may be worn. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is not effective for these materials. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing at the site. CALL CHEMTREC AT 1-800-424-9300 AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, especially if there is no local hazardous materials team available. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] Fire: Small Fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam. Large Fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fight fire from maximum distance. Stay away from ends of tanks. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] Spill or Leak: Do not touch spilled material; stop leak if you can do it without risk. Fully-encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Small Spills: Take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal. Small Dry Spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Large Spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] First Aid: Move victim to fresh air and call emergency medical care; if not breathing, give artificial respiration; if breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact with material, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. Speed in removing material from skin is of extreme importance. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes at the site. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Effects may be delayed; keep victim under observation. /Nitrotoluene/ [R10] ... Contact with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid may cause fires ... . /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] Health: 2. 2 = Materials hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely with full-face mask self-contained breathing apparatus which provides eye protection. [R13,p. 325M-75] Flammability: 1. 1 = Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur. Water may cause frothing if it gets below the surface of the liquid and turns to steam. ... Water fog gently applied to the surface will cause a frothing which will extinguish the fire. [R13,p. 325M-75] Reactivity: 4. 4 = Materials which (in themselves) are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temp and pressures. Incl materials which are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock. If a chemical with this hazard rating is in an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated. [R13,p. 325M-75] 106 deg C; 223 deg F (Closed cup) [R13,p. 325M-75] Water spray, fog, foam, CO2. [R11] Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible, solid streams of water may be ineffective. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Toxic gases & vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen & carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving nitrotoluene. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] EXPLOSION: Lower Explosive Limit: 2.2% [R15, 180] REACTIVITY: Nitrotoluene will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, & coatings. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] ... Contact with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid may cause fires and explosions. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] 0.05 mg/l [R16] Slightly irritating to eyes. [R16] Wear appropriate clothing to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact. Wear eye protection to prevent any reasonable probability of eye contact. Employees should wash promptly when skin is wet or contaminated. Remove nonimpervious clothing promptly if wet or contaminated. [R17] Wear self-contained breathing apparatus, protective shoes. [R18] Respirator Selection: At 50 ppm: Supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus. At 200 ppm: Supplied air with a full facepiece, helmet and hood, or a Type C supplied air operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode. Escape: Gas mask with an organic vapor canister (chin-style or front-or back-mounted canister) with a particulate filter, and self-contained breathing apparatus. /Nitrotoluene/ [R19] Respirators may be used when engineering & work practice controls are not technically feasible. ... Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, & in emergency situations. ... Respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety & Health Admin ... or by the NIOSH. ... Employees should be provided with & required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (8-inch min), & other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with solid or liq nitrotoluene. ... Employees should be provided with & required to use dust- & splash-proof safety goggles where solid or liq nitrotoluene may contact the eyes. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants. ... A complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which incl regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, & evaluation. ... Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated ... should be removed ... & not reworn until nitrotoluene is removed. Eating & smoking should not be permitted in areas where solid nitrotoluene is handled, processed, or stored. Employees who handle solid or liq nitrotoluene should wash ... hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent & water before eating or smoking. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. /Nitrotoluene/ [R20] The scientific literature supports the wearing of contact lenses in industrial environments, as part of a program to protect the eye against chemical compounds and minerals causing eye irritation. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases contact lenses should not be worn. /Heat contributes/ ... to instability. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 2] SHIPPING: No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./ [R21] Int'l Air Shipments: Chemical: Nitrotoluenes, liquid or solid. IMO Class: 6.1. UN 1664. Primary hazard label: Poison (packaging group II). Additional packaging instructions listed in the table must also be followed. /Nitrotoluenes/ [R22] International Water Shipments: Chemical: Nitrotoluenes (ortho-;meta-;para-) IMO Class: 6.1, poisons. UN 1664. Packaging Group: II. Label(s) required: Poison. /Nitrotoluenes/ [R23] STORAGE: PROTECT AGAINST PHYSICAL DAMAGE. STORE IN COOL, DRY, WELL-VENTILATED AREA AWAY FROM AREAS OF HIGH FIRE HAZARD. [R13,p. 49-69] CLEANUP: 1) Ventilate area of spill or leak. For small quantities of liq nitrotoluene, absorb on paper towels. For small quantities of solid nitrotoluene, sweep onto paper or other suitable material. Remove to safe place (such as fume hood) & burn. Large quantities of liq nitrotoluene can be collected & atomized in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. Large quantities of solid nitrotoluene can be reclaimed; ... If not practical, dissolve in flammable solvent (such as alcohol) & atomize in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 3] Land Spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Water Spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom, remove trapped material with suction hoses. If dissolved, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Nitrotoluene/ [R24] DISPOSAL: 1) For liq nitrotoluene, by absorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand, earth or similar material. 2) By atomizing liq nitrotoluene in suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. 3) By making packages of solid nitrotoluene in paper or other suitable material or by dissolving in a flammable solvent (such as alcohol) & burning in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with appropriate effluent gas cleaning device. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 3] The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 2-Nitrotoluene: Concentration process: Biological treatment. [R25] Routine checking of lips, tongue, and nail beds of exposed personnel for signs of cyanosis. /Nitrotoluene/ [R18] The following medical procedures should be made available to each employee who is exposed to nitrotoluene at potentially hazardous levels. Initial Medical Examination: (1) A complete history and physical examination ... to detect preexisting conditions that might place the exposed employee at increased risk ... . Examination of the blood, nervous system, and cardiovascular system should be stressed. (2) Complete blood count: ... Shown to cause methemeglobinemia. Persons with blood disorders may be at increased risk from exposure. Periodic Medical Examination: The aforementioned medical examination should be repeated on an annual basis. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 1] Initial Medical Exam: A complete history & physical exam: ... Exam of blood, nervous system, GI system, & cardiovascular system should be stressed. Skin should be exam for evidence of chronic disorders. ... A complete blood count should be performed, including red cell count, a white cell count, a differential count of stained smear, as well as hemoglobin & hematocrit. Periodic Medical Exam: The ... /initial med exam/ should be repeated on an annual basis. Methemoglobin determinations should be performed if overexposure is suspected or signs & symptoms of toxicity occur. [R12, 1] ... Produces methemoglobin causing hypoxia, but of a low potency. It is also suspected of causing anemia in chronic exposures. [R26] Symptoms: Headache, flushing of face; dizziness, dyspnea, ... cyanosis, nausea, vomiting, muscular weakness, increased pulse and respiratory rate, irritability and convulsions. [R18] ... Cases of poisoning from nitrotoluene are uncommon. Some authorities considered it only slightly toxic, esp in comparison with nitrobenzene. There is some evidence that the different isomers vary ... in toxicity. ... It is stated that nitrotoluene is a methemoglobin former of apparently low grade. /Nitrotoluene/ [R27] ... The onset of symptoms of methemoglobinemia is insidious and may be delayed up to 4 hours; headache is commonly the first symptom and may become quite intense as the severity of methemoglobinemia progresses. ... Cyanosis develops early in the course of intoxication, first the lips, the nose, and the ear lobes, and is usually recognized by fellow workers ... . Until the methemeglobinemia concentration approaches approximately 40%, the individual usually feels well, has no complaints, and will insist that nothing is wrong. ... Over 40% ... weakness and dizziness; at up to 70% ... there may be ataxia, dyspnea on mild exertion, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 1] Target Organs: Blood, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular system, and skin. /Nitrotoluene/ [R15, 181] MOLAR RATIO OF METHEMOGLOBIN FORMED TO DOSE OF O-NITROTOLUOL IN CATS: 0.05. /FROM TABLE/ [R28, 2109] WHEN ADMIN ORALLY AT DOSES CORRESPONDING TO 0.1-0.2 LD50 VALUES IN RATS FOR 1-3 MO, THE HEMOTOXICITY OF TOLUENE DERIV DECR IN THE ORDER: TRINITROTOLUENE, DINITROTOLUENE, M-NITROTOLUENE, P-NITROTOLUENE, AND O-NITROTOLUENE. THEY CAUSED ANEMIA ACCOMPANIED BY RETICULOCYTOSIS AND A DECR IN THE LEVEL OF SH-GROUPS AND AN INCR IN THAT OF FIBRINOGEN IN THE BLOOD. [R29] NITROTOLUENE, A MIXT OF THE 3 ISOMERS ADDED TO THE DIET OF RATS, INCR THE NUMBER OF LEUKOCYTES AND THE METHEMOGLOBIN BLOOD LEVEL, DECR THE NUMBER OF ERYTHROCYTES AND THE HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL, IMPAIRED THE ANTITOXIC FUNCTION OF THE LIVER AS MEASURED BY THE INCR IN URINARY HIPPURIC ACID, SHORTENED THE PROTHROMBIN TIME, AND RAISED THE PROTHROMBIN INDEX. THE CONCN OF NITROTOLUENE IN RESERVOIRS MUST BE LOW ENOUGH TO AVOID POSSIBLE TOXIC EFFECTS IN THE DRINKING WATER. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R30] To determine whether hepatic macromolecular covalent binding of mononitrotoluene isomers to hepatic DNA in vivo was decreased by inhibitors of sulfotransferase, male Fischer 344 rats were given a single oral dose of ring-U-(14)C-labeled 2-, 3-, or 4-nitrotoluene, and were killed at various times thereafter. Livers were removed and analyzed for total and covalently bound radiolabel. Maximal concentrations of total radiolabel were observed between 3 and 12 hr after the dose, and there were no large differences among the 3 isomers in peak concentrations achieved. Covalent binding to hepatic macromols was maximal 12 hrs after administration for all 3 isomers. Thereafter, concn of administration for all 3 isomers. Thereafter, concn of covalently bound 2-nitrotoluene derived material were always 2-6 times higher than those of 3- or 4-nitrotoluene derived material. When DNA was isolated from livers of rats given mononitrotoluene isomers 12 hrs previously, only 2-nitrotoluene was observed to covalently bind at concns above the limits of detection of the assay. The covalent binding of 2-nitrotoluene, but not that of 3- or 4-nitrotoluene, to both total hepatic macromols and DNA was markedly decreased by prior administration of pentachlorophenol or 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol. Covalent binding to hepatic DNA was decreased by >96%. Thus, 2-nitrotoluene, but not 3- or 4-nitrotoluene, induces DNA excision repair. Furthermore, 2-nitrotoluene, like the hepatocarcinogen 2,6-dinitrotoluene, may require the action of sulfotransferase for its conversion to a species capable of covalently binding to hepatic DNA. [R31] The mutagenicities of the o, m, and p-isomers of nitrotoluene ... were tested with or without S9 mix and norharman in the Salmonella assay system. None of the compounds were mutagenic without norharman. ... The induction of mutagenesis with norharman was strong for the o-isomer, weak for p-isomer, and was not observed for the m-isomer. [R32] Chemical-induced DNA repair, as measured specific genotoxic activity in lab animals ... In rat hepatocytes, 2-nitrotoluene ... induced DNA repair. 2-Nitrotoluene produced a positive response in hepatocytes from Charles River associated flora-inoculated rats, whereas no DNA repair was observed in hepatocytes isolated from germ-free animals. [R33] Preclude from exposure those individuals with anemia, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. [R18] Persons with blood disorders may be at increased risk from exposure. /Nitrotoluene/ [R12, 1] IT MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE INTACT SKIN AND THROUGH THE RESP TRACT. [R28, 2148] ... The metabolism /of 2-nitrotoluene/ was compared in hepatocytes isolated from male Fischer 344 rats. ... Hepatocytes were incubated with U-(14)C 2-nitrotoluene, ... at concentrations from 25-1000 uM for up to 60 minutes. ... 2-Nitrotoluene was converted to 2-nitrobenzyl alcohol (52%), 2-nitrobenzyl alcohol glucuronide (28%), and unidentified metabolite (20%) and 2-nitrobenzoic (3%). ... Incubation of 2-nitrotoluene (1mM) with rat hepatic microsomes produced only the respective nitrobenzyl alcohols ... . [R34] The major sources of release of 2-nitrotoluene to the environment appears to be production and use facilites and plants which produce this compound as a by-product. If released to soil, 2-nitrotoluene should be resistant to oxidation and chemical hydrolysis. One study on 2-nitrotoluene under aerobic conditions in a mixed culture of soil microorganisms in aqueous mineral salts media resulted in persistence of > 64 days. 2-Nitrotoluene is expected to be moderately to highly mobile in soil and volatilize slowly from dry soil surfaces. If released to water, 2-nitrotoluene would be susceptible to direct photolysis, indirect photolysis (half-life <1 hour in river water containing a high concn of humic substances), volatilization (estimated half-life 21 hours in water 1 m deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec) and possibly aerobic biodegradation provided suitable acclimation has taken place. Oxidation chemical hydrolysis, adsorption to suspended solids and sediments and bioacculmulation in aquatic organisms are not expected to be significant fate processes. Based on monitoring data, the half-life of 2-nitrotoluene in a river 4 to 5 m deep has been estimated to be 3.2 days. If released to the atmosphere, 2-nitrotoluene is expected to exist almost entirely in the vapor phase. The dominat removal mechanism would be direct photolysis (half-life <5 hours). 2-Methyl-6-nitrophenol and 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol are photoproducts of 2-nitrotoluene. The most probable routes of human exposure to 2-nitrotoluene are inhalation and dermal contact by workers involved in the production and use of this compound, dinitrotoluenes and trinitrotoluenes. (SRC) In general, the major sources of release of nitroaromatic compounds to the environment appears to be production and use facilities and plants which produce these compounds as by-products(1). 2-Nitrotoluene may also enter the environment from the disposal of waste products which contain this compound(SRC). [R35] TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, 2-nitrotoluene may be resistant to oxidation and chemical hydrolysis. One study on 2-nitrotoluene under aerobic conditions in a mixed culture of soil microorganisms in aqueous mineral salts media resulted in persistence of > 64 days. 2-Nitrotoluene is predicted to be moderately to highly mobile in soil and volatilize slowly from dry soil surfaces. (SRC) AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, 2-nitrotoluene may be susceptible to direct photolysis, indirect photolysis (half-life < 1 hr in river water containing a high concn of humic substances), volatilization (estimated half-life 21 hours in water 1 m deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec) and possibly aerobic biodegradation, provided suitable acclimation has taken place. Adsorption to suspended solids and sediments and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms are not expected to be significant fate processes. Based on monitoring data, the half-life of 2-nitrotoluene in a river 4 to 5 m deep has been estimated to be 3.2 days(1). [R36] ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere 2-nitrotoluene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase. The dominant removal mechanisms would be reaction with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life 8 hr) and direct photolysis. 2-Methyl-6-nitrophenol and 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol are photoproducts of 2-nitrotoluene. (SRC) 100 ppm 2-nitrotoluene inoculated with 30 ppm activated sludge under aerobic conditions at 25 deg C was < 30% degraded after 2 weeks(1,2). 2-Nitrotoluene (200 mg/l COD) inoculated with adapted activated sludge under aerobic conditions at 20 deg C underwent 98% degradation in 5 days as measured by COD removal(3). 2-Nitrotoluene should be degraded by biological sewage treatment provided suitable acclimation can be achieved(4). 10 ug/l 2-nitrotoluene inoculated with a mixed culture of soil microorganisms under aerobic conditions in aqueous mineral salts media persisted > 64 days as measured by UV absorbancy(5). In general, anaerobic biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds results in the reduction of the nitro group to an amino group(6). [R37] Chemical hydrolysis and oxidation of 2-nitrotoluene are not expected to be important removal processes since this compound contains no functional groups which are susceptible to these types of reactions(1,SRC). Absorption of UV light in the environmentally significant range (> 290 nm) by 2-nitrotoluene in cyclohexane(2), indicates that the potential exists for photolysis in water and air(SRC). Irradiation (at > 300 nm) of 2-nitrotoluene vapor in air for 5 hour resulted in 79% loss of the 2-nitrotoluene initially present and formation of 2-methyl-6-nitrophenol (6.1% yield) and 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol (7.5% yield)(3). 2-Nitrotoluene in triethylamine underwent 100% conversion when irradiated (wavelengths > 290 nm) for 3 hours forming aniline (32%), azoxybenzene (5%), azobenzene (2.5%), and 2-hydroxyazo compound (10%)(4). The mid day half-life of 2-nitrotoluene in Aucilla River water due to indirect photolysis has been calculated to be 45 minutes using an experimentally determined reaction rate constant of 0.92 l/hr (5) (Aucilla River water contains a high concn of humic substances, which appears to act as a photosensitizer(5)). The half-life for 2-nitrotoluene vapor reacting with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere has been estimated to be 8.0 hr based on a reaction rate constant of 3.0X10-11 cu cm/molecules-sec at 25 deg C and and ambient hydroxyl radical concn of 8.0X10-5 molecules/cu cm(6). [R38] The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for 2-nitrotoluene has been experimentally determined to be less than 100 in carp (Carprinus carpio)(1,2). BCF values of 33 and 16 have been calculated based on a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 2.30 and a measured water solubility of 652 mg/L at 30 deg C(3,4,5,SRC). These BCF values suggest that 2-nitrotoluene will not bioaccumulate significantly in aquatic organisms(SRC). [R39] The soil adsorption coefficient for 2-nitrotoluene has been calculated to be 425 and 124 based on a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 2.30 and a measured water solubility of 652 mg/l at 30 deg Crespectively (1,2,3,SRC). These Koc values suggest that 2-nitrotoluene would be moderately to highly mobile in soil and would adsorb slightly to suspended solids and sediments in water(4,SRC). [R40] The volatilization half-life of o-nitrotoluene from water 1 m deep, flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec has been calculated to be 21 hr based on a measured Henry's Law constant of 5.6X10-5 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(1,2,SRC). A vapor pressure of 0.1 mm Hg at 20 deg C for 2-nitrotoluene suggests that this compound will volatilize slowly from dry soil surfaces(2,SRC). [R41] SURFACE WATER: During 1974, 2- and 4-nitrotoluene were detected in the Waal River (Netherlands), avg concn 4.5 ug/l, max concn 18.1 ug/l, and in the Maas River (Netherlands), max concn 0.3 ug/l(1). 2-Nitrotoluene has been detected in Rhine River water at a concn of 10 ug/l(2). [R42] DRINKING WATER: 2-Nitrotoluene has been qualitatively identified in German drinking water(1). [R43] 2-Nitrotoluene has been detected in the effluent from a plant manufacturing trinitrotoluene in Radford, VA, 0.32-16 mg/l detected(1). 2-Nitrotoluene has been detected in the wastewater resulting from the production and purification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 0.02-0.14 mg/l detected, 38% samples pos(2). 2-Nitrotoluene has also been detected in raw effluent from a plant manufacturing dinitrotoluene, 7.8 mg/l detected, and in a waste treatment lagoon of a paper mill(1). [R44] 2-Nitrotoluene has been detected in the ambient air at the Dupont plant in Deepwater, NJ at a concn of 47 ng/cu m(1). [R45] The most probable route of human exposure to 2-nitrotoluene are inhalation and dermal contact of workers involved in the production and use of this compound, dinitrotoluenes, and trinitrotoluene. (SRC) A National Occupational Hazard Survey (1973-74) estimates that 285 workers are exposed to 2-nitrotoluene(1). [R46] Under controlled experimental conditions 2-nitrotoluene was detected in human expired air, 387 samples from 54 people, 19.1% samples pos, 0.04 ng/l mean concn(1). [R47] +200 ppm /Nitrotoluene/ [R48] OSHA: 8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 5 ppm (30 mg/cu m). /Transitional limits/ must continue to be achieved by any combination of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment during the phase-in period, Sept 1, 1989 through Dec 30, 1992. Final rule limits become effective Dec 31, 1992. Skin absorption designation in effect of Sept 1, 1989. [R49] 8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 2 ppm (11 mg/cu m). /Final rule limits/ shall be achieved by any combination of engineering controls, work practices and personal protective equipment during the phase-in period, Sept 1, 1989 through Dec 30, 1992. Final rule limits become effective Dec 31, 1992. Skin absorption designation in effect as of Sept 1, 1989. [R49] +Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 2 ppm, 11 mg/cu m, skin (1982) [R50, 29] +Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. [R50, 5] +Biological Exposure Index (BEI) adoption (1990-91): Methemoglobin in blood during or end of shift is 1.5% of hemoglobin. The determinant is usually present in a significant amt in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Such background levels are incl in the BEI value. The determinant is nonspecific, since it is observed after exposure to some other chemicals. These nonspecific tests are preferred because they are easy to use and usually offer a better correlation with exposure than specific tests. In such instances, a BEI for a specific, less quantitative biological determinant is recommended as a confirmatory test. The biological determinant is an indicator of exposure to the chemical, but the quantitative interpretation of the measurements is ambiguous. /Methemoglobin inducers/ [R50, 65] Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 1000 lb or 454 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b). [R51] NIOSH Method 2005. Analyte: o-Nitrotoluene. Matrix: Air. Sampler: Solid sorbent tube (silica gel, 150 mg/75 mg). Flow Rate: 0.01 to 0.21 l/min. Sample Size: 1 to 30 l. Shipment: Routine. Sample Stability: Unknown. [R52, 2005] KNOWN MIXT OF O-NITROTOLUENE, M-NITROTOLUENE, AND P-NITROTOLUENE IN AIR OF INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS WERE ANALYZED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. THE MINIMUM CONCN OF THE ISOMERS WAS 1X10-6 G/ML, TIME FOR EACH DETERMINATION 10 MIN, AND THE ABSOLUTE ERROR 9%. [R53] A METHOD WAS DEVELOPED FOR DETERMINING O- & P-NITROTOLUENE IN SOLN & IN AIR BASED ON REDUCTION TO TOLUIDINE. [R54] NIOSH Method 2005. Analyte: o-Nitrotoluene. Matrix: Air. Procedure: Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection. For o-nitrotoluene, this method has an estimated detection limit of 0.0008 for a 20 liter sample. The overall precision/RSD is 0.062 and the recovery is not given. Applicability: The working range is 0.25 to 52 mg/cu m for a 25 l air sample. Interferences: None identified. [R52,p. 2005-1]

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