|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
||EPA Method 604||EPA Method 625
||EPA Method 8040
||EPA Method 8270
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
|Use|| INDICATOR IN 2% ALC SOLN; PH RANGE 5 COLORLESS, 7.0 YELLOW, BUT
COLOR CHANGE IS NOT SHARP & CANNOT BE USED WHERE CARBON DIOXIDE IS
USED IN SYNTHESIS OF DYESTUFF AND OTHER INTERMEDIATES
Intermediates for the production of pigments, rubber chemicals, lumber preservatives,
photographic chemicals, and fungicide agents.
REAGENT FOR GLUCOSE.
|Apparent Color|| LIGHT YELLOW NEEDLES OR PRISMS ; MONOCLINIC
|Odor|| PECULIAR, AROMATIC ODOR
|Boiling Point|| 216 DEG C
|Melting Point|| 44-45 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 139.11
|Density|| 1.495 at 14 deg C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| Detection in air: 8.0X10 11 moles/cu m
Recognition in air: 0.11-0.13 mg/cu m; detection in air: 0.0012 mg/cu m
Threshold odor concn in water: 10 mg/l
|Sensitivity Data|| Dust: irritating to eyes, nose & throat; solid: irritating to skin & eyes
|Environmental Impact|| 2-Nitrophenol may be released to the environment in wastewater and as fugitive emissions
during its production and use as a chemical intermediate. It is also found in the atmosphere
originating mostly from secondary photochemical reactions in the air and partly from emissions of
vehicular exhaust gas. When released on soil, appreciable quantities should volatilize and it will
slowly biodegrade (10% mineralization in 30 days). It would not be adsorbed strongly and may
leach into the ground. If released into water, it will be lost by a combination of volatilization
(half-life 12 days in a typical river), photolysis, and biodegradation. Half-lives for photolysis and
biodegradation in water are not available but acclimation will be very important in the case of
biodegradation. Adsorption to sediment should be minor under most circumstances and little or
no bioconcentration should take place. If released in air it will be partially associated with
particulate matter and be removed by gravitational settling, washout by rain, as well as by
photolysis and vapor-phase reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated
half-life 14 hr). Human exposure will be primarily from ambient air via inhalation.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: When radiolabeled 2-nitrophenol was incubated in a laboratory
terrestrial ecosystem for 30 days, 44.8% of the (14)C resided in soil and plants and 9.9% had been
transformed to (14)CO2 . 45.3% of the radioactivity found in air was not CO2 . According to
a modeling calculation on this system, 37.2% of the 2-nitrophenol should volatilize which
suggests that most of the (14)C in the vapor phase that is not (14)CO2 is parent compound,
rather than a volatile metabolite. 2-Nitrophenol would not be expected to adsorb appreciably to
soil. 4-Nitrophenol complexes with montmorillonite clay which suggests that 2-nitrophenol might
do likewise; however experimental data are lacking. Based on screening studies, 2-nitrophenol
should biodegrade more slowly than the other nitrophenols; 10% mineralization in 30 days in a
terrestrial ecosystem . Its half-life in flooded soil is 10 days. While its low adsorption to soil
suggests that 2-nitrophenol may leach into ground water, it has not been reported in ground water
in monitoring studies.
AQUATIC FATE: If released into water, one would not expect 2-nitrophenol to sorb appreciably
to sediment because of its low Koc. Losses may result from biodegradation, volatilization, and
photolysis. No studies were available that would indicate what the half-life for biodegradation is in
natural waters. Screening studies indicate that 2-nitrophenol biodegrades more slowly than
4-nitrophenol (half-life in freshwater is 1-8 days) with acclimation being extremely important.
Biodegradation is moderately fast under anaerobic conditions which implies that degradation may
be important in anaerobic sediment. Volatilization (half-life 12 days in a typical river) and
photolysis may be important in some environmental waters.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 2-Nitrophenol released to the atmosphere may be associated with
suspended particulate matter or aerosols as well as exist in the vapor phase. It will be scavenged
by rain, be subject to gravitational settling, and undergo photolysis. The photolysis half-life will
depend on the amount of sunlight, pH, and dissolved nitrate in the aerosol water and the nature of
the particulate matter on which the 2-nitrophenol is adsorbed; however, data are lacking on which
to base an estimated photolysis half-life. The estimated half-life for the reaction of vapor phase
2-nitrophenol with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is 14 hr.
Aquatic Fate: Based on the information gathered for 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and
2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-nitrophenol will probably undergo slow photooxidation in an aerated aquatic
environment. There is a possibility for photoreduction of the nitro group if the 2-nitrophenol
becomes absorbed by organic particulates.
|Drinking Water Impact|| SURFACE WATER: Ambient water concentrations reported in the USEPA's STORET
database, 1980-1982 (811 samples) 0.0% pos . Not detected in the Lake Erie or Lake Michigan
basin . 2-Nitrophenol has been detected, not quantified in river water .
RAIN/SNOW: Portland, OR (7 rain events): 26-130 ng/l, 59 ng/l mean dissolved in rain .
EFFL: Effluent concentrations reported in the USEPA's STORET database, 1980-1982 (1318
samples) 1.8% pos . Norway - 30 samples representing polluted fjord areas as well as effluent
from municipal treatment plants, refineries, petrochemical and metallurgic industries: 11% pos at
a 1 ppb limit of quantitation . Confirmed in effluents from the photographic and electronics
industries . Detected in effluent from the Sauget wastewater treatment plant which receives
wastes from heavy chemical manufacturing suggestive of azo dye wastes . Detected in the
treated effluents of the following industries (industry (concn)): iron and steel manufacture (21 ppb
max), foundries (20 ppb mean, 40 ppb max), pharmaceuticals (10 ppb max), organic chemicals
manufacturing/plastics (130 ppb max), rubber processing (4.9 ppb max), and textile mills (4.1 ppb
max) . Additionally, the raw wastewater of the following industries not listed above contained