SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 91576
CASRN 91-57-6
Synonyms2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
Beta-methylnaphthalene; Naphthalene,beta-methyl
Molecular FormulaC11H10

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Database for more details on this compound.

UseORGANIC SYNTH; INSECTICIDES [R1] /SRP/: PESTICIDE ADJUVANT Used as dye carrier [R3] ... Pure 2-methylnaphthalene is primarily used in vitamin K production and as a chemical intermediate. [R4]
Apparent ColorN/A
OdorN/A
Boiling Point 241 DEG C
Melting Point 34.6 DEG C
Molecular Weight 142.2
MiscDENSITY:1.0058 at 20 deg C/4 deg C SOLUBILITY: Very soluble in alcohol & ether; Soluble in benzene INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.6015 @ 40 DEG C/D; MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 224 NM (LOG E= 4.38), 274 NM (LOG E= 3.72), 305 NM (LOG E= 2.66), 319 NM (LOG E= 2.65); SADTLER REFERENCE NUMBER: 1277 (IR, PRISM); 230 (IR, GRATING); +IR: 1259 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection); +UV: 12432 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); +NMR: 6938 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); +MASS 763 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York) Vapor pressure= 6.81x10-2 mm Hg at 25 deg C Heat of fusion: 20.11 cal/g= 89.14 J/g= 11,965 J/mol Enthalpy of formation: 10.72 kcal/mole Gibbs (free) energy of formation: 46.03 kcal/mole Entropy: 52.58 cal/deg C-mole Heat capacity: 46.84 cal/deg C-mole Critical volume: 462 cu m/mole MONOCLINIC CRYSTALS FROM ALCOHOL IN CONTRAST TO NAPHTHALENE, THE ONLY REPORTED EFFECTS OF METHYLATED NAPHTHALENE IN MAN ARE SKIN IRRITATION AND SKIN PHOTOSENSITIZATION. /METHYLATED NAPHTHALENE/ [R8] EXPOSURE OF THE DUNGENESS CRAB (C MAGISTER) LARVAE TO SEAWATER SOLN OF THE WATER SOL FRACTION (WSF) OF COOK INLET CRUDE OIL SHOWED THAT THE CONCN OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN WSF WAS INVERSELY RELATED TO THE DEGREE OF ALKYLATION IN NAPHTHALENE FAMILY, BUT THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AROMATIC CMPD WAS DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE DEGREE OF ALKYL SUBSTITUTION. THE SEAWATER CONCN OF 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IN WATER SOL FRACTION OF COOK INLET CRUDE OIL WAS 0.03 + or - 0.001 MG/L. [R11] 2-Methylnaphthalene /admin orally at concn 5.00 mg/kg/ is lethal to /rats/. [R12] TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATES, 239 CMPD REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GASEOUS & SEMIVOLATILE PHASE OF TOBACCO SMOKE, WERE ASSAYED FOR MUTAGENICITY TOWARDS 4 HISTIDINE REQUIRING MUTANTS OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM. 1- & 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WERE TESTED QUANTITATIVELY USING TA98 AND TA100 WITH AND WITHOUT S9 FROM 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE INDUCED RATS THE CONCN USED WERE 3 UMOL/PLATE. 1- & 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WERE NOT MUTAGENIC. [R13] LC50 CANCER MAGISTER (DUNGENESS CRAB) LARVAE 5.0 MG/L/48 HR [R11] LC50 CANCER MAGISTER (DUNGENESS CRAB) LARVAE 1.3 MG/L/96 HR [R11] ADE: ENGLISH SOLE WERE EXPOSED TO OILED (ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE CRUDE OIL) SEDIMENTS OVER 4 MO TO ASSESS BIOAVAILABILITY & TISSUE HYDROCARBON DISTRIBUTION KINETICS IN FLATFISH. CRUDE OIL WAS MIXED WITH AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FREE SEDIMENTS TO A CONCN OF 700 UG/G DRY WT AT THE BEGINNING OF THE EXPERIMENT. DURING THE FIRST MO, THIS CONCN DECR TO 400 UG/G DRY WT, AND REMAINED RELATIVELY STABLE DURING THE REMAINDER OF THE 4 MO PERIOD. FLATFISH ACCUM ALKANE & AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SKIN, MUSCLE & LIVER. 1- & 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS ACCUMULATED TO GREATER EXTENT THAN OTHER AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. TISSUE LEVELS DECR WITH TIME, AFTER 27 DAY CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE ONLY LIVER CONTAINED DETECTABLE LEVELS. [R14] THE ACCUMULATION AND ELIMINATION OF (14)C IN RAINBOW TROUT TISSUES FOLLOWING SHORT AND LONG TERM EXPOSURES TO AQ (14)C-LABELED 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS STUDIED. PRESENCE OF PARENT CMPD & METABOLITE IN ACETONE EXTRACTS OF MUSCLE WAS DETERMINED BY TLC. BIPHASIC RELEASE OF (14)C FROM MUSCLE MAY BE DUE TO DIFFERENTIAL EXCRETION OF PARENT CMPD & METABOLITE. [R15] THE UPTAKE, DISPOSITION, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND ELIMINATION OF (14)C-LABELED 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS STUDIED IN SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH. (14)C /IN BILE/ FROM RAINBOW TROUT, CARP, & SHEEPSHEAD WHICH HAD BEEN EXPOSED WAS PRESENT MAINLY /IN/ METABOLITES. MOST METABOLITES APPEARED TO BE CONJUGATED. THE DISPOSITION & METAB OF 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IN RAINBOW TROUT WERE AFFECTED BY PRETREATMENT WITH INDUCER OF MICROSOMAL ENZYMES BETA NAPHTHOFLAVONE. BILIARY (14)C WAS HIGHER IN INDUCED TROUT & TISSUES CONTAINED GREATER PROPORTION OF (14)C AS METABOLITES IN THE INDUCED TROUT THAN IN THE CONTROLS. [R16] PRETREATMENT OF RAINBOW TROUT WITH 2,3-BENZANTHRACENE RESULTED IN AN INCREASE IN THE METABOLISM & BILIARY EXCRETION OF 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IN VIVO. [R17] 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN FLESH EXTRACT OF EELS (ANGUILLA JAPONICA TEMMINCK ET SCHLEGEL) MAINTAINED IN CONTROLLED LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT OF WATER WITH SUSPENSION OF CRUDE OIL. [R18] YIELDS CIS-1,2-DIHYDRO-1,2-DIHYDROXY-7-METHYLNAPHTHALENE & TRANS-1,2-DIHYDRO-1,2-DIHYDROXY-7-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IN PSEUDOMONAS. /FROM TABLE/ [R19] YIELDS 2-NAPHTHYLCARBINOL IN PSEUDOMONAS. /FROM TABLE/ [R19] METAB OF 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IN RATS (IN VIVO & IN VITRO) & RAINBOW TROUTS (IN VITRO) WAS INVESTIGATED. CONVERSION OF 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE TO BOTH MONOHYDROXYLATED CMPD & DIHYDRODIOLS WAS DECR BY INCUBATION WITH CARBON MONOXIDE, OMISSION OF NADPH OR USE OF DENATURED MICROSOMES, IMPLYING INVOLVEMENT OF CYTOCHROME(S) P450-LINKED MIXED FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITY. PRETREATMENT OF RAINBOW TROUT WITH PHENOBARBITAL & BETA-NAPHTHOFLAVONE SELECTIVELY ALTERED THE RATE OF FORMATION OF SPECIFIC DIHYDRODIOLS BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMES. ALTHOUGH PHENOBARBITAL HAD NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON RATE OF DIHYDRODIOL FORMATION, BETA-NAPHTHOFLAVONE WAS STRONG INDUCER. [R20] The fungal metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons has been studied using naphthalene and biphenyl as model compounds. Using (14)C naphthalene and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, the major free metabolites were trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydro-naphthalene, 4-hydroxy-l-tetralone and 1-naphthol. The sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of 1-naphthol were the major water soluble metabolites which were isolated by thin layer chromatography and ion pair high pressure liquid chromatography. Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry was used to identify the sulfate conjugate whereas the trimethylsilyl derivative of the glucuronic acid conjugate was characterized by Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry. Analogous metabolites were formed from biphenyl which was hydroxylated at the 4 position and then conjugated. /Naphthalene/ [R21] The metabolism of naphthalene in mammals has been extensively studied. Naphthalene is first metabolized by hepatic mixed function oxidases to the epoxide, naphthalene-1,2-oxide. This epoxide has the distinction of being the first arene oxide metabolite to have been isolated. Epoxide formation is an obligatory step. The epoxide can be enzymatically converted into the dihydrodiol, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene or conjugated with glutathione. The dihydrodiol can then be conjugated to form a polar compound with glucuronic acid or sulfate or be further dehydrogenated to form the highly reactive 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene. This too can be enzymatically conjugated with sulfate or glucuronic acid or spontaneously oxidized to form another highly reactive compound, 1,2-naphthoquinone. /Naphthalene/ [R22] THE UPTAKE, DISPOSITION, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND ELIMINATION OF (14)C-LABELED 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS STUDIED IN SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH. HALF-LIVES OF ELIMINATION OF (14)C-2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE FROM TISSUES, FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF RAINBOW TROUT FINGERLINGS FOR 8 HR, WERE LESS THAN 24 HR. AFTER EXPOSURE FOR 4 WK, HALF-LIFE OF ELIMINATION OF (14)C WAS BIPHASIC: HALF-LIFE OF RAPID PHASE LESS THAN 24 HR; SLOW PHASE HUNDREDS OF HR. [R16] 2-Methylnaphthalene is a component of crude oil and a product of combustion which is produced and released to the environment during natural fires. Emissions from petroleum refining, coal tar distillation, and gasoline and diesel fueled engines are major contributors of 2-methylnaphthalene to the environment. Pure 2-methylnaphthalene is primarily used in vitamin K production and as a chemical intermediate. Consequently, 2-methylnaphthalene may be released to the environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of waste byproducts. Because of the widespread use of 2-methylnaphthalene in a variety products, 2-methylnaphthalene is also released to the environment through landfills, municipal waste water treatment facilities and waste incinerators. 2-Methylnaphthalene should biodegrade rapidly in the environment where micro-organisms have acclimated to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and at a moderate rate in unacclimated soils and aquatic systems. Hydrolysis and bioconcentration of 2-methylnaphthalene should not be an important fate processes in the environment. The direct photolysis half-life for 2-methylnaphthalene in sunlit waters at midday, midsummer and 40 deg N latitude was predicted to be 54 hr. Photolysis is also likely to occur in air and on sunlit soil surfaces. A measured Koc of 8500 indicates 2-methylnaphthalene will be immobile in soil. In aquatic systems, 2-methylnapthalene may partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 5.18X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of 2-methylnapthalene from environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and model pond, the latter considers the effect of adsorption, have been estimated to be 5.5 hr to 77.7 days, respectively. 2-Methylnapthalene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air. Reactions with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (half-life of 7.4 hr) and ozone (half-life of 28.7 days) in the atmosphere are likely to be important fate processes. Nighttime reactions with dinitrogen pentoxide (half-life of 9.6 days) may contribute to the atmospheric transformation of 2-methylnapthalene. The most probable human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or inhalation at places where 2-methylnapthalene is produced or used. Atmospheric workplace exposures have been documented. Non-occupational exposures would most likely occur via urban atmospheres, contaminated drinking water supplies and recreational activities at contaminated waterways. (SRC) 2-Methylnaphthalene is a natural component of crude oil(1). 2-Methylnaphthalene is also a product of combustion and can be released to the environment via natural fires associated with lightening, volcanic activity, and spontaneous combustion(SRC). [R23] /SRP/: 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE IS A CONSTITUENT OF PETROLEUM, AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST, SOME ESSENTIAL OILS, WASTE WATER FROM COAL GASIFICATION, COKE & SHALE OIL PRODN, WASTE WATER, TAP WATER, & SEDIMENTS. Manmade sources: in coal tar pitch fumes: 1.0 wt% [R24, 863] 2-Methylnaphthalene is emitted to the environment by effluents from petroleum refining and coal tar distillation(1). The combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels releases 2-methylnaphthalene to the atmosphere(2). Pure 2-methylnaphthalene is primarily used in vitamin K production and as a chemical intermediate(1). Consequently, 2-methylnaphthalene may be released to the environment via manufacturing effluents and the disposal of waste byproducts(3-7). Because of the widespread use of 2-methylnaphthalene in a variety of products, 2-methylnaphthalene is also released to the environment through landfills(8,9), municipal waste water treatment facilities(10,11) and waste incinerators(12,13). [R25] /SRP/: 2-METHYLNAPHTHALINE IS A CONSTITUENT OF TOBACCO SMOKE. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Data regarding the biodegradation of 2-methylnaphthalene in soil were not available. However, based upon aqueous screening test data and die-away tests for ground and marine water, 2-methylnaphthalene should biodegrade rapidly in soils acclimated to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and at a moderate rate in unacclimated soils. 2-Methylnaphthalene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in soils; yet, may undergo direct photolysis in sunlit surface soils. A measured Koc of 8500(1) indicates 2-methylnaphthalene will be immobile in soils(2). A calculated Henry's Law constant of 2.6X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(SRC) suggests volatilization of 2-methylnaphthalene from moist soils with a low organic matter content may be important(3). [R26] AQUATIC FATE: The biodegradation of 2-methylnaphthalene in marine water and waters acclimated to PAHs is expected to be rapid. For unacclimated aquatic systems, 2-methylnaphthalene should biodegrade at a moderate rate. 2-Methylnaphthalene will not hydrolyze in environmental waters. The direct photolysis half-life for 2-methylnaphthalene in sunlit waters at midday, midsummer and 40 deg N latitude was predicted to be 54 hr(1). Bioconcentration of 2-methylnaphthalene is not expected to be important in aquatic systems. Limited monitoring data and a high Koc suggest 2-methylnaphthalene should partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A calculated Henry's Law constant of 5.18X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(SRC) suggests volatilization of 2-methylnaphthalene from environmental waters may be important(3). Based on this Henry's Law Constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 5.5 hr(3,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be about 77.7 days(4,SRC). [R27] ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 6.81X10-2 mm Hg at 25 deg C(1), 2-methylnaphthalene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air(2). In the atmosphere, direct photolysis of 2-methylnaphthalene is likely to occur; however, only aqueous photolysis data were available. Reactions of 2-methylnaphthalene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone are likely to be important fate processes in ambient air. Measured rate constants at 25 deg C of 5.23X10-11 and 4X10-19 cu cm/molecule-sec for vapor phase reactions with hydroxyl radicals and ozone correspond to half-lives of 7.4 hours and 28.7 days at atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals and 7X10+11 ozone molecules, respectively(3). A rate constant of 4.2X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-methylnaphthalene with dinitrogen pentoxide corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 9.6 days at an atmospheric concn of 2X10+10 molecules per cu cm(3). Therefore, the formation of nitro derivatives in night-time air is also an important fate process for 2-methylnaphthalene(3). [R28] SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT MARINE ENVIRONMENTS CHALLENGED WITH PRUDHOE BAY CRUDE OIL. STUDIES USING NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTED SAMPLES SHOWED THAT SIMPLE AROMATICS (EG 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE) WERE MORE READILY DEGRADED BY MICROORGANISMS THAN N-ALKANES. [R29] Microbial degradation to carbon dioxide in seawater at 12 deg C- in the dark after 24 hr incubation at 50 ug/l: 0.10 ug/l/day, turnover time: 500 days; after addition of aq extract of fuel oil 2: degradation rate: 0.26 ug/l/day- turnover time: 200 days [R24, 864] Degradation in seawater by oil oxidizing micro-organisms: 17.1% breakdown after 21 days at 22 deg C in stoppered bottles containing a 100 ppm mixture of alkanes, cyclo-alkanes, and aromatics [R24, 864] Aerobic aqueous screening test data showed a 84 and 95% loss of 0.1 ppm methylnaphthalene in 1 and 5.6 days, respectively, for acclimated sewage inoculum and did not degrade with unacclimated sewage(1). When marine water was used to inoculate, 2-methylnaphthalene at a concn of 0.067 ppm disappeared within 10 days under aerobic conditions at 25 deg C(2). Less than 5% degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene occurred in 28 days using the Japanese MITI I procedure; however, for the MITI II test with a freshwater inoculum, 72% was lost in 28 days under aerobic conditions at 25 deg C(3). 2-Naphthoic acid was identified as a microbial co-oxidation product of 2-methylnaphthalene by mixed cultures of Norcardia sp. isolated from soil(4). [R30] 2- Methylnaphthalene at a concn of 0.5 ppm was completely removed within 14 days from acclimated fresh-wellwater grab samples from Tuffenwies and Zurich, Switzerland, with a pH of 8.0, at 10 and 25 deg C and microbial populations of 300-400 cells/mL(1). Grab samples of groundwater aquifer soil that had acclimated to creosote wastes containing 2-methylnaphthalene were able to degrade 2-methylnaphthalene at concn between 0.02 and 0.12 ppm under aerobic conditions at 25 deg C for a 56 day period at an average rate of 160% per week(2). An average loss of 6.5% per week was observed for autoclaved controls(2). Unacclimated material from the same aquifer degraded 2- methylnaphthalene at an average rate of 3.5% per week; however autoclaved controls lost 2-methylnaphthalene at an overall rate of 11.1% per week(2). A marine water die-away study with sediment inoculum from Dunstaffnage Bay, Oban, Scotland showed a 88.5% loss of 2-methylnaphthalene contained in crude oil after 7 days at 20 deg C(3). After standardization to controls, the measure of radiolabelled CO2 evolution from radiolabeled methylnapthalene contained in crude oil was 0.8, 2.2 and 0.8% for marine water grab samples from Saanich Inlet, Canada incubated at 12 deg C for 1, 2 and 3 days, respectively(4). [R31] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon are generally resistant to hydrolysis(1). Therefore, 2-methylnaphthalene should not undergo hydrolysis in the environment. 2-Methylnaphthalene absorbs a maximum amount of sunlight at 320 nm(3). The direct aqueous photolysis half-life for midday, midsummer sunlight at 40 deg N latitude was predicted to be 54 hr(3). Data regarding direct photolysis of 2-methylnaphthalene in air were not available. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-methylnaphthalene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals was measured to be 5.23X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C; which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 7.4 hours at a atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(2). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-methylnaphthalene with ozone has been measured to be less than 4X10-19 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 28.7 days at an atmospheric concn of 7X10+11 molecules per cu cm(2). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-methylnapthalene with dinitrogen pentoxide has been measured to be 4.2X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 9.6 days at an atmospheric concn of 2X10+10 molecules per cu cm(2). [R32] UPTAKE OF NAPHTHALENES FROM SAND & DETRITUS CONTAMINATED WITH PRUDHOE BAY CRUDE OIL EXAM IN DETRITIVOROUS CLAM. CONCN OF NAPHTHALENES WERE DETERMINED BY UV SPECTROPHOMETRY AND THE USE OF RADIOLABELED (14)C-2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE. NAPHTHALENES RELEASED FROM SEDIMENT TO WATER WERE AVAIL FOR UPTAKE BY CLAMS. [R33] Bioaccumulation: rainbow trout: 4 wk BCF (bile) (female): 23,500; 4 wk BCF (other tissues): 40-300 [R24, 864] BCF (exposure to approx 1 ppm of the water sol fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil) in muscle of: Starry flounder: 2800 after 1 wk exposure, 470 after 2 wk exposure, 110 after 1 wk depuration, 200 after 2 wk depuration (after 2 wk exposure) [R24, 864] BCF (exposure to approx 1 ppm of the water sol fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil) in muscle of: Coho salmon: 30 after 2 wk exposure, 100 after 3 wk exposure, 190 after 5 wk exposure, 70 after 6 wk exposure, not detectable after 1 wk depuration (after 6 wk exposure) [R24, 864] Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to 0.02 ppm at 10 deg C for 5 wk: 0.56 ppm in muscle tissue (dry wt basis): bioaccumulation factor: 28 [R24, 865] After 2, 3, 5 and 6 weeks exposure, the bioconcentration factor of 2-methylnaphthalene in the muscle tissue of Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) was 30, 100, 190 and 70, respectively(1). After 2 weeks exposure, the average bioconcentration factor of 2-methylnaphthalene in the muscle tissue of Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) was 895(1). The bioconcentration factor of 2-methylnaphthalene in clams was 8.1 after 4 hr exposure(2). [R34] An average log Kp for 2-methylnaphthalene of 2.00 was determined from 17 measurements(1). A measured Koc of 8500 for 2-methylnaphthalene(2) indicates 2-methylnaphthalene will be immobile in soil(3). [R35] Based upon a water solubility of 24.6 ppm(1) and a vapor pressure of 6.81X10-2 mmHg at 25 deg C(2), a Henry's Law Constant of 5.18X10-4 atm-cu m/mole has been calculated(SRC). This value indicates volatilization of 2-methylnaphthalene from environmental waters should be important(3). The volatilization half-life from a model river (1 meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec) has been estimated to be 5.5 hr(3,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be 77.7 days(4,SRC). [R36] In estuarine waters: at 30 ug/l, 6% adsorbed on particles after 3 hr [R24, 864] DRINKING WATER: 2-Methylnaphthalene was detected in drinking water supplies where coal tar was employed on underground storage tanks to prevent corrosion(1). Four of five samples of Nordic tap water contained 2-methylnaphthalene at concn ranging from 0.63 to 6.9 ng/L(2). 2-Methylnaphthalene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking water according to a survey of USA cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co, CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA, and Seattle(5) and groundwater wells of WI(3). For a survey of drinking water supplies in the UK, 2-methylnaphthalene was detected in the treated water at 14 of 14 water treatment facilities(4). [R37] SURFACE WATER: 2-Methylnaphthalene was detected in coastal waters at Vineyard Sound, MA at concn ranging from 0.5 to 22.0 ng/L with an average concn of 6.3 ng/L(1). 2-Methylnaphthalene is also listed as a contaminant of coastal waters off Narragansett Bay, RI(2), Los Angeles River stormwaters(3) and Lake Ontario(4). [R38] GROUNDWATER: 2-Methylnaphthalene was detected in a coal tar contaminated aquifer in St Louis Park, MN(1) at concn ranging from less than 0.01 to 56 mg/kg sediment(2). Stored wastes from a former pine-tar manufacturing site in Gainesville, FL have contaminated surrounding ground waters with concn of 2-methylnaphthalene ranging from 0.9 to 80 ug/L(3). Wood preserving chemicals at Pensacola, FL are responsible for 2-methylnaphthalene concn of 1.40, 0.63 and 0.84 mg/L at ground water depths of 6, 12 and 18 m, respectively(4). At Conroe, TX a creosote waste facility has contaminated groundwater with 2-methylnaphthalene at concn ranging from 1.4 to 440.6 ug/L(5). 2-Methylnaphthalene was identified in the ground water leachate from the Waterloo and Northbay landfills, Ontario, Canada at concn ranging from 0.1 to 20 ug/L(6). [R39] RAIN/SNOW: Rain water in Portland, OR contained 2-methylnaphthalene at concn ranging from 19 to 69 ng/L between Feb 12 and April 12, 1984(1). Snow pack from the city of St Marie, Canada contained 2-methylnaphthalene at concn ranging from less than 0.050 to 0.212 ug L(2). [R40] Manmade sources: in sewage effluent: 0.0014 mg/l [R24, 864] 2-Methylnaphthalene was detected in the leachate from a survey of 58 municipal landfills at an average concn of 0.053 mg/L(1). The authors did not state whether or not 2-methylnaphthalene was detected at all 58 landfills(1). Coal tar leachate was found to contain 2-methylnaphthalene(2,3). 2-Methylnaphthalene was also detected in the municipal wastewaters from 4 major treatment plants in Southern CA(4) and in Los Angeles County effluent at a concn of 10 ug/L(5). Urban runoff to the Narragansett Bay, RI contained 2-methylnaphthalene at concn of 4.471, 5.199, 6.492 and 6.314 ug/cm/sq km from residential, commercial, industrial and highway land uses, respectively(6). 2-Methylnaphthalene was also identified as a stack emission(7) and a component of fly ash(8) from waste incinerators. Data from Aug 25 to Sept 7 1979 showed for a speed of 80 km/hr on straight and level highway, gasoline powered vehicles emitted 2-methylnaphthalene at an average rate of 3.4 mg/km and diesel trucks emitted 2-methylnaphthalene at an average of 0.2 mg/km(9). [R41] Motorboats were shown to emit 2-methylnaphthalene to canal water with resultant concn of 3 to 276 ng/L(1). 2-Methylnaphthalene was detected in the water discharged from a hydrocarbon vent of an offshore oil platform at a concn of 20 ug/L(2). The dissolved air floatation effluent of a Class B oil refinery contained 2-methylnaphthalene at a concn of 259 ng/g(3). Effluents from refineries, petrochemical industry, metallurgic industry and municipal wastewater treatment plants in Norway contained 2-methylnaphthalene with a 62% frequency of appearance(4). Reactor tar from a coal gasification plant contained 2-methylnaphthalene at a concn of 29.6 mg/g(5). Effluent from a textile finishing operation also contained 2-methylnaphthalene(6). [R42] Sediment from the Duwamish River delta, WA contained 2-methylnaphthalene at an average concn of 90 ng/g(1). Sediments from three sites in Eagle Harbor and one at President Point, WA contained 2-methylnaphthalene at an average concn of 110, 1700, 23 and less than 3.5 ng/g for 4, 9, 2 and 1 sample(s) respectively(2). Sediments from Providence River, Mid-bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI contained 2-methylnaphthalene at an average concn of 44.9, 11.5 and 2.5 ng/g, respectively(3). Sediment from George's Bank contained 2-methylnaphthalene at an average concn of 1.69 ng/g(4). 2-Methylnaphthalene was also detected in sediments from Dohkai Bay(5) and Puget Sound, WA(6), and the Elizabeth River, VA(7). At Conroe, TX a creosote waste facility has contaminated the ground at depths of 0.7-1.8, 5, 10 and 24-25 m with concn of 2-methylnaphthalene of 3.42, 0.44, 0.11 and 0.03 mg/kg(8). [R43] The concn of 2-methylnaphthalene was 1 ug/ cu m in the outdoor air at shale oil wastewater facility(1). Atmospheric concn of methylnaphthalene ranged from 3.1 to 20.0 ng /cu m at New Bedford, MA(2). In 1983-4 the average outdoor air concn of 2-methylnaphthalene in northern Italy was 12 ug/cu m for 2 of 6 samples(3). 2-Methylnaphthalene was also detected in the air of Sundsvall, Sweden(4) and So CA(5). On Feb 25, 1986, the ambient air concn of 2-methylnaphthalene was 900 ng/cu m for Torrance, CA(6). According to a national survey of ambient air the average daily atmospheric concn of 2-methylnaphthalene based on 64 data points is 0.086 ppbv(7). [R44] FOOD: 2- Methylnaphthalene was identified as a volatile component of cassava(1), roasted filberts(2) and nectarines(3). Assorted types of lima, pinto, red kidney, black, navy and mung beans, soybeans, split peas and lentils were found to contain 2-methylnaphthalene at concn ranging from 2.8 to 49.2 ppb(4). [R45] FISH: 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN FLESH EXTRACT OF EELS (ANGUILLA JAPONICA TEMMINCK ET SCHLEGEL) MAINTAINED IN CONTROLLED LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT OF WATER WITH SUSPENSION OF CRUDE OIL. [R18] Bullhead catfish fish from the Black River and Lake Buckeye, OH and Striped Bassfrom the Potomoc River, MD contained 2-methylnaphthalene at concn of 6, 5 and 1 ppb, respectively(1). In Nigeria, African mudfish (C. lazera) averaged 18.01, 23.62, 14.22 and 38.90 ng of 2-methylnaphthalene/g of dry weight; Tilapia sp. (S. niloticus) averaged 19.96, 2.73, 3.12 and 2.16 ng of 2-methylnaphthalene/g of dry weight; Tilapia sp. (S. galileus) averaged 24.86, 18.50, 3.84 and 3.41 ng of 2-methylnaphthalene/g of dry weight; Tilapia sp. (T. zilli) averaged 17.23, 16.23, 14.94 and 3.16 ng of 2-methylnaphthalene/g of dry weight; and H. fasiatus averaged 18.19, 23.94, 2.33 and 6.42 ng of 2-methylnaphthalene/g of dry weight for the preservation methods of traditionally smoked, traditionally solar dried, oven dried and the University of Ife solar drying technique, respectively(2). [R46] The most probable routes of human exposure include inhalation and dermal contact, especially at the workplace where 2-methylnapthalene is produced or used. Inhalation or urban atmospheres and ingestion of drinking water or foods containing 2-methylnapthalene may also occur. (SRC) The concn of 2-methylnaphthalene in the personal air at the coal preparation area of a solvent refined coal pilot plant was 13.8, 9.4 and 18.9 ug/cu m for a welder and two operators, respectively. ... [R47] Based upon the national average daily atmospheric concn of 0.086 ppbv for 2-methylnapthalene(1), and the average daily inhalation for a human adult of 20 cu m of air, the average daily intake of 2-methylnapthalene via air is 1.72 ug(SRC). A National Survey of drinking water supplies listed 2-methylnapthalene a common contaminant for several major USA cities(2). Based upon a selected water concn of 0.63 ng/L(3) for 2-methylnapthalene and the average daily consumption of 2 ng/L of water, the average daily intake of 2-methylnapthalene via water is 1.26 ng(SRC). [R48] NIOSH (NOHS Survey 1972-1974) has estimated that 3499 workers are exposed to 2-methylnapthalene in the USA(4). Workers at a creosote impregnation plant for lumber were exposed to an average atmospheric concn of 2-methylnaphthalene of 2.2 mg/cu m for 18 samples(1). The concn of 2-methylnaphthalene in the personal air at the coal preparation area of a solvent refined coal pilot plant was 13.8, 9.4 and 18.9 ug/cu m for a welder and two operators, respectively(2). 2-Methylnaphthalene was found to be completely in the gaseous phase in the workplace air of an aluminum plant at Soderberg, Norway at an average concn of 8.94 ug/cu m(3). [R49] A quantitative procedure is described for the determination of the toxic materials, alkanes and methylnaphthalene (such as 2-methylnaphthalene) cmpd in shellfish tissues. Fresh shellfish tissue (< 100 g) was refluxed with 150 ml 95% ethanol for 1 hr. The solvent was separated and extracted with hexane (C6H14), which was then dried and concentrated and added to a silicic acid column. The column was eluted with additional C6H14 to yield an alkane fraction and with 4% ether in hexane to yield a methyl-substituted fraction. The respective fractions were separated into their component hydrocarbons by gas chromatography. This procedure allowed recovery of > 70% of the alkanes and methylnaphthalenes added to tissue, and min detectable levels were 0.08-0.15 and 0.03-0.04 ug/g, respectively. [R51] 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE WAS IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN FLESH EXTRACT OF EELS (ANGUILLA JAPONICA TEMMINCK ET SCHLEGEL) MAINTAINED IN CONTROLLED LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT OF WATER WITH SUSPENSION OF CRUDE OIL. [R18]

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