SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 91587
CASRN 91-58-7
Synonyms2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE
Beta-chloronaphthalene; Naphthalene,2-Chloro; Halowax
Molecular FormulaC10H7C1

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

UseMonochloronaphthalenes have been used for chemical resistant gage fluids and instrument seals, as heat exchange fluids, high boiling specialty solvents, color dispersions, as crank case additives to dissolve sludge and gums, and as ingredients in motor tune-up compounds. [R7]
Apparent ColorN/A
OdorN/A
Boiling Point 256 DEG C @760MM HG; 132.6 DEG @ 20 MM HG; 119.7 DEG C @ 11 MM Hg
Melting Point 59.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 162.61
MiscSPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.1938 @ 90 DEG C/4 DEG C SOLUBILITY: SOL IN ALCOHOL, ETHER, BENZENE, CHLOROFORM, CARBON DISULFIDE.; Water solubility of 11.7 mg/l at 25 deg C INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.60787 @ 70.7 DEG C/D; MAX ABSORPTION (METHANOL): 226 NM (LOG E= 4.91); 270 NM (LOG E= 3.67); 288 NM (LOG E= 3.47); 322 NM (LOG E= 2.25); +Intense mass spectral peaks: 162 m/z (100%), 164 m/z (32%), 127 m/z (32%), 128 m/z (17%); +IR: 1093 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection); +UV: 13346 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); +NMR: 3632 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); +MASS: 1030 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York) 7.98X10-3 mm Hg at 25 deg C (calc) Physical properties of ... chlorinated naphthalenes are generally dependent on the degree of chlorination. ... As the degree of chlorination increases the specific gravity, boiling point, fire and flash points all increase while ... vapor pressure and water solubility decrease. ... Chlorinated naphthalenes /also/ exhibit a high degree of chemical and thermal stability. /Chloronaphthalenes/ Mixtures of mono- and dichloronaphthalenes are generally liquids at room temperature ... . Skin, hepatic function. /Chlorinated naphthalenes/ [R17] WHEN CMPD...USED IN POORLY VENTILATED AREAS & ESP WHEN HEAT IS APPLIED...THERE MAY BE SIGNIFICANT SYSTEMIC ABSORPTION OF TOXIC VAPORS. TARGET ORGAN IS PRIMARILY LIVER, & CASES OF FATAL ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY HAVE BEEN REPORTED. /CHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES/ [R8, 290] CHLORINATED...NAPHTHALENES ARE POTENT INDUCERS OF CHLORACNE WHICH MAY DEVELOP AFTER WK OR MO OF CUTANEOUS EXPOSURE & COMMONLY APPEARS FIRST LATERAL TO EYEBROWS, ON CHIN, CHEEKS, FOREHEAD, CHEST, ABDOMEN, THIGHS, OR BUTTOCKS. ... THE LESIONS ARE PRIMARILY PAPULES & YELLOWISH CYSTS SURROUNDED BY MILD ERYTHEMA. ... PRURITIS IS COMMON. /CHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES/ [R8, 289] SYSTEMIC POISONING /FROM CHLORONAPHTHALENES/ HAS BEEN REPORTED AFTER ABSORPTION THROUGH VAPOR INHALATION, WITH DIGESTIVE DISTURBANCES, IRRITATION OF EYES, IMPOTENCE & HEMATURIA. /CHLORONAPHTHALENES/ [R18, 2289] CHLORONAPHTHALENES HAVE PHOTOSENSITIZING ACTION ON SKIN. /CHLORONAPHTHALENES/ [R18, 466] Symptoms of poisoning may include headache, fatigue, vertigo and anorexia. Jaundice may /also result/ from liver damage. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R19, 152] Effects of 2-chloronaphthalene on mitochrondrial respiration were studied in homogenate from isolated rat liver. 2-Chloronaphthalene was an inhibitor. [R20] Acute toxicity to freshwater aquatic life occurs at concentrations as low as 1600 ug/l. ... Acute toxicity to saltwater aquatic life occurs at concentrations as low as 7.5 ug/l. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R21] Results from bioassays ... show that the monochloro-isomer is more acutely toxic than the octachloro-isomer for a freshwater plant, a freshwater invertebrate species, a freshwater vertebrate species, and a saltwater species. /Monochloronaphthalene/ [R19, 141] Elicited signs of intoxication in cattle by a dose as low as 1 mg of chlorinated naphthalene per kg body weight given over a 7-day period. At this dosage, signs of intoxication appeared on the twelfth day after administration began. These included excessive lacrimation and salivation, nasal discharge, emaciation, proliferative lesions in mouth, diarrhea, and in more chronic cases, the typical hyperkeratosis of the skin. Gross lesions found at necropsy included proliferative lesions in the esophageal mucosa, cirrhosis of liver, cystic swelling of mucosa of gallbladder and extra hepatic bile ducts, and striation in the renal cortex. Histopathological findings have shown degeneration and cirrhosis of liver, proliferation of the intrahepatic bile ducts, cystic dilation of mucosal glands of gallbladder and bile ducts, dilatation of the straight tubules of the kidney, squamous cell metaplasia of cervix and Gartner's ducts, and hyperkeratosis of the skin (the mysterious "X disease"). Cattle poisoned with highly chlorinated naphthalene have consistently shown a decrease in vitamin A plasma levels to less than 10 ug/100 ml of blood. This change occurred a few days after administration of the naphthalene. [R22, 3671] The smallest amount of chlorinated naphthalene per kg of body weight required to cause death in a sheep was approx 100 times greater than the smallest amount per kg body weight to cause death in a calf. ... This difference between bovine and ovine lethal doses is much greater than that which might have been deduced from the results obtained with contaminated wheat concentrates ... . /Chlorinated naphthalenes/ [R22, 3672] PERSONS WITH HISTORY OF SKIN DISEASE SHOULD BE EXCLUDED FROM /MFR OF CHLORONAPHTHALENES/... /CHLORONAPHTHALENES/ [R9] The potential for environmental exposure may be significant since these compounds /were formerly used/ as oil additives, in the electroplating industry and in the fabric dyeing industry. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R4] IN PIGS 10 MIN AFTER RETROCAROTID ADMIN OF 1-CHLORONAPHTHALENE THE BLOOD CONCN WAS 5.1 UG/G & DECREASED WITH TIME. AFTER ADMIN OF 2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE, THE CONCN WAS SIMILAR TO 1-CHLORONAPHTHALENE. ITS METABOLITE, 3-CHLORO-NAPHTHOL, WAS DETECTED IN BLOOD. 6-HR AFTER ADMIN OF THE CHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES, THEY WERE FOUND IN THE BRAIN, KIDNEY, LIVER, LUNG, SKELETAL MUSCLE, HEART & FAT WITH HIGHEST CONCN IN BRAIN & KIDNEY. FAT CONCN OF 2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE WAS LOW (0.6 UG/G). CHLORONAPHTHALENES ARE DISTRIBUTED IN VARIOUS ORGANS & TISSUES WHEREAS METABOLITES WERE CONCENTRATED IN URINE, BILE, KIDNEY & LIVER. [R23] Chloronaphthalenes can be absorbed through the skin, lung, and gut, and tend to deposit in fat depots. Accumulation occurs in pilosebaceous acini and adipose tissue and to a lesser degree in brain, kidney and other body tissues. Excretion occurs predominantly in urinary metabolites as well as in bile. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R24] 2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE IN CORN OIL WAS ADMIN BY RETROCAROTID INJECTION IN PIGS. ANALYSIS OF URINE SAMPLES SHOWED PRESENCE OF MONOHYDROXY COMPD, IDENTIFIED AS 3-CHLORO-2-NAPHTHOL. [R25] YIELDS (+)-TRANS-7-CHLORO-1,2-DIHYDRO-1,2-DIHYDROXYNAPHTHALENE IN PSEUDOMONAS. /FROM TABLE/ [R26] 2-Chloronaphthalene may be released to the environment via effluents at sites where it is produced or used with other monochloronaphthalenes for chemical resistant gage fluids and instrument seals, as heat exchange fluids, high boiling specialty solvents, color dispersions, as crank case additives to dissolve sludge and gums, and as ingredients in motor tune-up compounds. 2-Chloronaphthalene may also be released to the environment via cooling water discharges, leachates from hazardous waste sites and effluents from gaseous diffusion facilities and municipal waste incinerators. Pyrolysis of vinylidene chloride polymer may release 2-chloronaphthalene to the atmosphere. 2-Chloronaphthalene should biodegrade slowly in the environment. Aerobic biodegradation half-lives were 59 and 79 days for 2-chloronaphthalene contained in a mixture of oil sludge that was added to soil columns along with nitrogen and phosphorus. The hydrolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene is too slow to be environmentally important. 2-Chloronaphthalene has the potential to undergo direct photolysis in sunlit media. It may also evaporate from dry surfaces. A calculated Koc range of 1130 indicates 2-chloronaphthalene will have a low mobility in soil. In aquatic systems, 2-chloronapthalene will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms and can partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 3.15X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C suggests volatilization of 2-chloronaphthalene from environmental waters may be important. The volatilization half-lives from a model river and a model pond, the latter considers the effects of adsorption, have been estimated to be 7 hr and 16 days, respectively. 2-Chloronaphthalene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air. In the atmosphere, the reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 23 hr) is likely to be an important fate process. It can also be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. The most probable human exposure would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or inhalation at places where 2-chloronaphthalene is produced or used. Non-occupational exposures may occur from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water supplies and fish. (SRC) Lab experiments have shown that chloronaphthalenes may be formed from naphthalenes (an observed aquatic pollutant) under conditions similar to those used to disinfect drinking water and waste water. This observation has led to the speculation that treatment activities may be a continuing source of chloronaphthalenes in the environment. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R27] Monochloronaphthalenes have been used for chemical resistant gage fluids and instrument seals, as heat exchange fluids, high boiling specialty solvents, color dispersions, as crank case additives to dissolve sludge and gums, and as ingredients in motor tune-up compounds(1). The 1977 TSCA inventory listed 3 companies as manufacturers of 2-chloronaphthalene. One producer did not manufacture the chemical in 1977; whereas, the other two reported an annual production volumes of 1,000 to 10,000 pounds(2). Current production data were not located in the available literature. In 1983, 6592 lbs of unspecified isomers of chloronaphthalene were imported through principal US custom districts(3); more recent import figures are not available. Consequently, 2-chloronaphthalene may be released to the environment via effluents at sites where it is produced or used. 2-Chloronaphthalene may also be released to the environment via effluents from gaseous diffusion facilities(4). [R28] Leachate from hazardous waste sites can release 2-chloronaphthalene to ground and surface waters(1). Pyrolysis of vinylidene chloride polymer, which is used as wrapping material, may release 2-chloronaphthalene to the atmosphere(2). Municipal waste incinerators can emit 2-chloronaphthalene to ambient air(3). 2-Chloronaphthalene may be formed as a product of chlorination during water treatment(4) and therefore, it may be released in cooling water discharges and to drinking water supplies(SRC). [R29] TERRESTRIAL FATE: Grab sample data pertaining to the biodegradation of 2-chloronaphthalene in soil were not located in the available literature. Yet, a number of aerobic biological screening studies, which utilized settled waste water, sewage, or activated sludge for inocula, have demonstrated that 2-chloronaphthalene should biodegrade slowly in the soil(1-3). Biodegradation half-lives were 59 and 79 days for 2-chloronaphthalene contained in a mixture of oil sludge that was added to soil columns along with nitrogen and phosphorus(4). [R30] TERRESTRIAL FATE: 2-Chloronaphthalene has the potential to undergo direct photolysis in sunlit surface soils. An estimated Koc of 1130(1), indicates 2-chloronaphthalene will have a low mobility in soil(2). Limited monitoring data also demonstrates that 2-chloronaphthalene will leach to groundwater when contained in leachate(3). The Henry's Law constant of 3.15x10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(4) suggests volatilization of 2-chloronaphthalene from moist soils may be important(SRC). [R31] AQUATIC FATE: River die-away test data pertaining to the biodegradation of 2-chloronaphthalene or data regarding its direct photolysis in natural waters were not located in the available literature. Yet, a number of aerobic biological screening studies, which utilized settled waste water, sewage, or activated sludge for inocula, have demonstrated that 2-chloronaphthalene should biodegrade slowly in aquatic systems(1-4). In addition, 2-chloronaphthalene does absorb UV light in the environmentally relevant range (greater than 290 nm) with lambda max in methanol of 307 and 321 nm(5). Therefore, 2-chloronaphthalene has the potential to undergo photolysis in the environment. Hydrolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene in water is too slow to be environmentally important (half-life 8.3 years)(6). [R32] AQUATIC FATE: 2-Chloronaphthalene will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms and can partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids. A Henry's Law constant of 3.15X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(1) suggests volatilization of 2-chloronaphthalene from environmental waters may be important(2). Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river has been estimated to be 7 hr(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be about 16 days(3,SRC). [R33] ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based upon a vapor pressure of 7.98X10-3 mm Hg at 25 deg C, which has been extrapolated using Antoine's equation from 4 data points(1) in the temperature range of 120 to 256 deg C(SRC), 2-chloronaphthalene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in ambient air(2); In the atmosphere, the vapor phase reaction of 2-chloronaphthalene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals is likely to be an important fate process. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-chloronaphthalene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 1.65X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C; which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 23 hours at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(3). Data regarding direct photolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene in air were not located in the available literature. [R34] ATMOSPHERIC FATE: 2-Chloronaphthalene does absorb UV light in the environmentally relevant range (greater than 290 nm) with lambda max in methanol of 307 and 321 nm(1). Therefore, 2-chloronaphthalene has the potential to undergo photolysis in the environment. Monitoring data has shown that 2-chloronaphthalene can be removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition(2,3). [R35] Static-culture flask screening test demonstrated that 2-chloronaphthalene undergoes significant biodissimilation in culture media dosed with 5- & 10 mg/l substrate concn. [R36] Chlorinated naphthalenes are more resistant to biodegradation than naphthalene (a readily biodegradable compound). ... The higher the degree of chlorination the more slowly /a particular/ chloronaphthalene will be degraded ... . Chloronaphthalenes containing chlorosubstituents in both rings may be more resistant to biodegradation than chloronaphthalenes containing chlorine in only one ring. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R37] Soil grab sample and river die-away test data pertaining to the biodegradation of 2-chloronaphthalene in soil and natural waters were not located in the available literature. Yet, a number of aerobic biological screening studies, which utilized settled waste water, sewage, or activated sludge for inocula, have demonstrated that 2-chloronaphthalene is biodegradable(1-4). The Bunch and Chambers static culture flask biodegradability screening test was performed on 114 organic priority pollutants included on the U.S. EPA Priority Pollutants list under a set of controlled experimental conditions that included the following parameters: 5 and 10 mg/l concentrations of the test compound, 5 mg/l of yeast extract in the synthetic medium, 7-day static incubation at 25 deg C in the dark followed by three weekly subcultures (totaling 28 days of incubation), and incorporating settled domestic wastewater as the microbial inoculum. With respect to 2-chloronaphthalene, 100 percent loss of compound was observed after the first 7 day inoculation period and after each subsequent subculture. The results indicated significant biodegradation with rapid adaptation(1). [R38] The results of other aerobic screening tests demonstrate that the rate of biodegradation of 2-chloronaphthalene in the environment will be slow(1-3). A Warburg test, where an acclimated (to naphthalene), activated sewage sludge was responsible for a microbial population concn of 1900 mg/l, resulted in an 18% BODT of 1 ppm 2-chloronaphthalene in less than 10 hr; while 400 ug of O2 was utilized(1). According to the Japanese MITI procedure, which also utilized activated sludge as inocula, a microbial population concn of 30 mg/l degraded between 0 to 29% of 100 ppm 2-chloronaphthalene after 14 days incubation at 25 deg C with a pH of 7(2). A soil column study also indicates that 2-chloronaphthalene will biodegrade slowly(3). In 56 days, 757 mg/kg of 2-chloronaphthalene in a mixture of oil sludge degraded to 470 mg/kg in a Derby soil column with nitrogen and phosphorous additions(3). After 76 days the final concn was 94 mg/kg(3). In 102 days, 960 mg/kg of 2-chloronaphthalene in a wood preserving sludge degraded to 393 mg/kg in a Derby soil column with nitrogen and phosphorous additions(3). After 287 days the final concn was 15 mg/kg(3). The succeeding first order rate constants are 0.0805 and 0.0170 day-1; which correspond to half-lives of 59 and 79 days for 2-chloronaphthalene(3). [R39] The hydrolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene is not environmentally important(1). The neutral rate constant for the hydrolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene in water at 25 deg C is 9.5X10-6, which corresponds to a half-life of 8.3 years(1). Data regarding direct photolysis of 2-chloronaphthalene in air or water were not located in the available literature. 2-Chloronaphthalene does absorb UV light in the environmentally relevant range (greater than 290 nm) with lambda max in methanol of 307 and 321 nm(2). Therefore, 2-chloronaphthalene has the potential to undergo photolysis in the environment. The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-chloronaphthalene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 1.65X10-11 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C; which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 23 hours at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(3). [R40] After 7 days exposure to water concn ranging from about 100 to 750 ug/l, the log bioconcentration factor of 2-chloronaphthalene in the tissue of one year old, female guppies (Poecillia reticulata) was 3.63(1,2). This BCF value and monitoring data indicate that 2-chloronaphthalene will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms(SRC). [R41] Based on a water solubility of 11.7 mg/L at 25 deg C(1), a Koc of 1130 has been calculated using a recommended regression-derived equation(2,SRC). This Koc value indicates 2-chloronaphthalene will have a low mobility in soil(3), and has the potential to partition from the water column to organic matter contained in sediments and suspended solids(SRC). [R42] A Henry's Law constant of 3.15X10-4 atm-cu m/mole at 25 deg C(1) indicates volatilization of 2-chloronaphthalene from environmental waters should be important(2). The volatilization half-life from a model river (1 meter deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec) has been estimated to be about 7 hr(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model pond, which considers the effect of adsorption, has been estimated to be 16 days(3,SRC). [R43] DRINKING WATER: 2-Chloronaphthalene was listed as a contaminant found in drinking water for a survey of US cities including Pomona, Escondido, Lake Tahoe and Orange Co, CA and Dallas, Washington, DC, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Miami, New Orleans, Ottumwa, IA, and Seattle(1). For all samples taken from 11 water utilities of the Ohio River Valley, 2-chloronaphthalene was detected in 4 of 150 raw water extracts and 30 of 120 finished drinking water extracts, suggesting that 2-chloronaphthalene is formed as a product of chlorination during water treatment(2). [R44] SURFACE WATER: According to the EPA's STORET database, 863 sampling stations reported that unspecified isomers of chloronaphthalene were present in ambient waters, of which 1.4% contained detectable levels of the chemical with a median concentration of less than 10.0 ug/l(2). 2-Chloronaphthalene is listed as a contaminant of Great Lakes Ontario and Erie(1). In July 1977 to June 1978, 2 of 18 raw water samples of Beaver River water at Beaver Falls, PA contained 2-chloronaphthalene at mean and maximum concn of 0.2 ug/l(3). For all samples taken from 11 water utilities of the Ohio River Valley, 2-Chloronaphthalene was detected in 4 of 150 raw water extracts and 30 of 120 finished drinking water extracts, suggesting that 2-chloronaphthalene is formed as a product of chlorination during water treatment(3). [R45] GROUNDWATER: Groundwater samples from nearby the Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained 2-chloronaphthalene(1). [R46] RAIN/SNOW: Rain water from four storms during March to April 1982 at the Oregon Graduate Center about 12 km northwest of Portland, OR and that of 5 events in southeastern Portland did not contain 2-chloronaphthalene(1). Snow pack from 20 sampling plots in the city of St Marie, Canada contained 2-chloronaphthalene at concn less than 0.050 ug/l(2). [R47] According to the EPA's STORET database, 1255 sampling stations reported that unspecified isomers of chloronaphthalene were present in effluents, of which 1.4% contained detectable levels of the chemical with a median concentration of less than 10.0 ug/l(1). Wastewater from the gaseous diffusion facility operated by Union Carbide at Oak Ridge, TN contained 2-chloronaphthalene in the volatile fraction(2). Leachate from Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained 2-chloronaphthalene(3). Pyrolysis of vinylidene chloride polymer, which is used as wrapping material, released 2-chloronaphthalene to the atmosphere(4). Municipal waste incinerators can emit 2-chloronaphthalene to ambient air(5). [R48] According to the EPA's STORET database, 340 sampling stations reported that unspecified isomers of chloronaphthalene were present in sediments, of which 0.3% contained detectable levels of the chemical with a median concentration of less than 500.0 ug/kg by dry weight(3). Ground water sediment samples from nearby the Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp disposal site at Love Canal, NY contained 2-chloronaphthalene(1). 2-Chloronaphthalene was detected at concn equal to or less than 2.0 ug/kg in surficial bed material at Racoon Creek at Bridgeport, NJ on Jan 8, 1981(2). [R49] A survey of organic chemicals contained in the ambient air of New Bedford, MA was taken on Sept 3, and 6, 1982(1). 2-Chloronaphthalene was not detected(1). [R50] FISH: +2-Chloronaphthalene was detected in common carp, channel catfish, smallmouth and largemouth bass, rock bass, pumpkinseed, bowfin, lake trout and northern pike from Lake Michigan collected at White Lake and the St Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon, Pere Marquette, Manistee, Platte, Boardman, Grand Traverse, Manistique, Whitefish, Escanaba and Ford Rivers(1). 2-Chloronaphthlalene was detected in fish collected from Great Lake harbors and tributary mouths at the Astabula and Black Rivers, Ohio; Sheboygan, Memonimee, Kinnickinnic, Fox and Wolf Rivers, Wisconsin; and Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior, Wisconsin(2). Both oysters and clams from Lake Pontchartrain, LA contained 2-chloronaphthalene at an average concn of 46 ppb(3). Fish samples from the Great Lakes harbors and tributary mouths contained 2-chloronaphthalene(4,7). [R51] The most probable route of human exposure to 2-chloronaphthalene is by inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion. Fish(3-5) and drinking water supplies(1,2) have been shown to contain 2-chloronaphthalene. [R52] The most probable human exposure to 2-chloronaphthalene would be occupational exposure, which may occur through dermal contact or inhalation at places where it is produced or used(SRC). Non-occupational exposures may include the ingestion of contaminated fish(3-5) and drinking water(1,2). [R52] Air Samples: The sampling train consists of a 12 cm diameter glass-fiber and two 13x5 cm diameter polyurethane foam plugs housed in a glass module. Air is drawn through the module at a rate of about 60 l/min which gives a sample (24 hr) of about 90 cu m. Chloronaphthalenes adsorbed on the polyurethane plugs are extracted with toluene and the extract is evaporated to dryness. The residue is taken up in 1 ml hexane for analysis by GLC/MS chromatography. ... Each foam plug /used/ is extracted 5 times at 100 deg C with toluene to remove potentially interfering contaminants. This procedure has a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/cu m. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R57] Water Samples: ... Toluene is used to extract chloronaphthalene from water samples. The procedure involves extracting 200 ml of the water sample with 3 separate aliquots (25 ml) of toluene in a separatory funnel. The combined organic fraction is dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then evaporated to dryness. The residue is taken up in 1 ml hexane and chromatographed on a silica packed column using hexane as eluant. An aliquot of the hexane is then injected into a GLC for analysis of the chloronaphthalenes. This procedure has a sensitivity of about 200 ng/l. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R58] Soil and Sediment Samples: ... Acetone and toluene /are used/ to extract chloronaphthalenes from soil samples. The residue is taken up in 1 ml hexane and chromatographed on a silica packed column using hexane as eluant. The hexane eluate is analyzed for chloronaphthalenes by GLC. The method has a sensitivity of about 500 ng/kg soil. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R59] EPA Method 8270: A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Care is taken to avoid sample contact with any plastic. [R60] EPA Method 8250: A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Care is taken to avoid sample contact with any plastic. [R60] EPA Method 612: Grab samples must be collected in glass containers. Composite samples should be collected in refrigerated glass containers. Automatic sampling equipment must be as free as possible of Tygon tubing and other potential sources of contamination. All samples must be iced or refrigerated at 4 deg C from the time of collection until extraction. All samples must be extracted within 7 days of collection and completely analyzed within 40 days of extraction. [R61] Alpha-chloronaphthalene was determined in air samples by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. [R62] Adsorption followed by thermal desorption with Tenax gas chromatography is an effective analytical tool for the preconcentration-analysis of water samples containing mug/kg quantities of the 3 USA EPA priority pollutants, 2-chloronaphthalene, p-dichlorobenzene, & hexachloro-1,3-butadiene. [R63] Of the electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry response factors (RF) determined on triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for 53 extractable priority pollutants, 75% were within /- 15% of the values determined in an independent interlaboratory single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry study. RF values were independent of whether quadrupole Q1 or quadrupole Q3 was scanned. The precision of RF determination for 53 extractable priority pollutants (mean relative Std deviation 11.9%) was similar to that previously published for routine gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. [R64] Operational characteristics were determined for fused silicon dioxide capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as applied to extractable priority pollutants. Response factor relative std deviations at 50 ng for most of the extractable priority pollutants over the long term indicated precise determination. [R65] EPA Method 8120 was modified in a single-laboratory study to allow determination of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons including 2-chloronaphthalene in complex environmental samples. The 2 packed gas chromatographic columns specified in Method 8120 were replaced with 2 megabore fused-silica open tubular columns chemically bonded with trifluoropropylmethyl siloxane and polyethylene glycol, respectively. A Florisil cleanup procedure was developed that used 1 g Florisil disposable cartridges and hexane-acetone (9:1) eluant. This procedure allowed quantitative recovery of all 22 target compounds from all matrixes tested. The revised method was tested with a variety of sample matrixes. The detection limit for 2-chloronaphthalene in water samples spiked with 1000 ng/l of the compound were 1300 ng/l. Because of background contamination, detection limits for soil and sediment samples need to be determined on a case-by-case basis. [R66] The residue is taken up in 1 ml hexane for analysis by GLC/MS chromatography. ... Each foam plug /used/ is extracted 5 times at 100 deg C with toluene to remove potentially interfering contaminants. This procedure has a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/cu m. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R57] The residue is taken up in 1 ml hexane and chromatographed on a silica packed column using hexane as eluant. An aliquot of the hexane is then injected into a GLC for analysis of the chloronaphthalenes. This procedure has a sensitivity of about 200 ng/l. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R58] The hexane eluate is analyzed for chloronaphthalenes by GLC. The method has a sensitivity of about 500 ng/kg soil. /Chloronaphthalenes/ [R59] EPA Method 612: Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of 2-chloronaphthalene in municipal and industrial discharges, consists of a glass column, 1.8 m x 2 mm ID, packed with Supelco (100/120 mesh) coated with 1% SP-1000, with electron capture detection, and a mixture of 5% methane/95% argon as the carrier gas at flow rate of 25 ml/min. A sample injection volume of 2 to 5 ul is suggested, and the column temperature is held isothermal at 65 deg C. This method has a detection limit of 0.94 ug/l and an overall precision of 0.38 times the average recovery - 1.39, over a working range of 1.0 to 356 ug/l. [R61] EPA Method 1625: Semivolatile Organic Compounds. An isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in municipal and industrial discharges, this method is designed to meet the survey requirements of Effluent Guidelines Division (EGD) and the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Under the prescribed conditions, unlabeled 2-chloronaphthalene has a detection limit of 10 ug/l and a mean retention time of 1200 sec. This method has an initial precision of 100 ug/l and an accuracy of 46-357 ug/l for the unlabeled compound. [R61] EPA Method 8270: Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Semivolatile Organics, Capillary Column Technique. This gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method is used to determine the concentration of semivolatile organic compounds in extracts prepared from all types of solid waste matrices, soils, and ground water. The practical quantitation limit for determining an individual compound is approximately 1 mg/kg (wet weight) for soil/sediment samples, 1-200 mg/kg for wastes, and 10 ug/l for ground water. This method is applicable to quantify most neutral, acidic, and basic organic compounds that are soluble in methylene chloride, including the title compound, and are capable of being eluted without derivatization as sharp peaks from a 30 m by 0.25 mm ID (or 0.32 mm ID) 1 um film thickness silicon-coated fused silica capillary column (J&W Scientific DB-5 or equivalent)). A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Care is taken to avoid sample contact with any plastic. Under the prescribed conditions, 2-chloronaphthalene has a retention time of 11.87 min, a range for the average recovery of four measurements of 64.5-113.5 ug/l, and a limit for the standard deviation of 13.0 ug/l. [R60] EPA Method 8250: Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for Semivolatile Organics, Packed Column Technique. This gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method is used to determine the concentration of semivolatile organic compounds in extracts prepared from all types of solid waste matrices, soils, and ground water. The practical quantitation limit for determining an individual compound is approximately 1 mg/kg (wet weight) for soil/sediment samples, 1-200 mg/kg for wastes, and 10 ug/l for ground water samples. This method is applicable to quantify most neutral, acidic, and basic organic compounds that are soluble in methylene chloride, including the title compound, and capable of being eluted without derivatization as sharp peaks from a gas chromatographic packed column. For base/neutral compound detection, a 2 m by 2 mm ID stainless or glass column packed with 3% SP-2250-DB on 100/120 mesh Supelcoport or equivalent is used. For acid compound detection, a 2 m by 2 mm ID glass column packed with 1% SP-1240-DA on 100/120 mesh Supelcoport or equivalent is used. A representative sample is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Care is taken to avoid sample contact with any plastic. Under the prescribed conditions, 2-chloronaphthalene has a detection limit of 1.9 ug/l, a range for the average recovery of four measurements of 64.5-113.5 ug/l, and a limit for the standard deviation of 13.0 ug/l. [R60] EPA Method 8120: Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Method 8120 provides gas chromatographic conditions for the detection of ppb levels of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons. A 2 to 5 ul aliquot of the extract is injected into a gas chromatograph using the solvent flush technique, and compounds in the gas chromatograph effluent are detected by an electron capture detector. With this method 2-chloronaphthalene has a method detection limit of 0.94 ug/l, a range for the average recovery of four measurements of 29.5-126.9 ug/l, and a limit for the standard deviation of 37.3 ug/l. [R60]

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