SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 95578
CASRN 95-57-8
Synonyms2-CHLOROPHENOL
2-chloro-1-hydroxybenzene; Septi-Kleen,Pine-O Disinfectant
Molecular FormulaC6H5C1O

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

UseORGANIC SYNTHESIS (DYES) CHEM INT-EG, FOR HIGHER CHLORINATED PHENOLS (UNISOLATED); COMPONENT OF DISINFECTANT FORMULATIONS (AS CHLOROPHENOL); CHEM INT FOR PHENOLIC RESINS (POSSIBLE USE); SOLVENT FOR POLYESTER FIBERS (POSSIBLE USE) Intermediate in the manufacture of dyestuffs, higher chlorophenols, and preservatives. Catechol production ... Utilized in a process for extracting sulfur and nitrogen cmpd from coal. [R4] THE ORTHO ISOMER ... HAS SHOWN EXCELLENT KILLING ACTION WITHIN A FEW HR AGAINST VARIOUS ASCARID EGGS & LARVAE ON SOIL, BRICK, CONCRETE, METAL, & WOOD SURFACES AS A 1-5% EMULSION. SOIL STERILANT Used as a disinfectant/bacteriocide/germicide for animal pathogenic bacteria (gram negative and gram positive vegetative) in or on: household premises, sickroom equipment, sickroom premises, swimming pool related surfaces, commercial premises, industrial premises, institutional premises, bathroom premises, urinals, water closets, and garbage containers. /Septi-Kleen/ [R2] Used as a disinfectant/bacteriocide/germicide for animal pathogenic bacteria on bathroom premises or in toilet bowls and urinals. /Pine-O Disinfectant/ [R2]
Apparent Color LIGHT AMBER LIQUID ; COLORLESS TO YELLOW BROWN LIQUID
OdorUNPLEASANT PENETRATING ODOR
Boiling Point 174.9 DEG C @ 769 MM HG
Melting Point 9.3 DEG C
Molecular Weight 128.56
MiscDENSITY: 1.2634 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C 3.2x10-9 at 25 deg C pKa= 8.52 10,341.1 GCAL/GMOLE log Kow= 2.15 PH: weakly acidic SOLUBILITY: SOL IN ALC; ACETONE; BENZENE ; SOL IN AQ SODIUM HYDROXIDE ; 2.85 PARTS SOL IN 100 PARTS WATER @ 20 DEG C ; SOL IN ETHER; CAUSTIC ALKALI SOLUTIONS MAX ABSORPTION (ALCOHOL): 216 NM (LOG E= 3.81); 274.5 NM (LOG E= 3.37); 280 NM SHOULDER (LOG E= 3.30), SADTLER REF NUMBER: 2800 (IR, PRISM); 343 (IR, GRATING) ; Index of refraction: 1.5524 @ 20 deg C ; INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.5565 @ 25 DEG C/D, 1.5473 @ 40 DEG C/D ; IR: 6193 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection) ; UV: 772 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection) ; NMR: 1209 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection) ; MASS: 552 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York) ; Intense mass spectral peaks: 128 m/z (100%), 64 m/z (52%), 130 m/z (32%), 63 m/z (26%) 42.25 DYNES/CM @ 12.7 DEG C Vapor pressure= 2.2 mm Hg at 20 deg C (calculated) 4.11 CP @ 25 DEG C MP: 7 DEG C (ALPHA), 0 DEG C (BETA), 4.1 DEG C (GAMMA) DIPOLE MOMENT IN BENZENE: 1.33 D Medicinal, empyrumatic odor /Chlorophenols/ VAPOR PRESSURE: 1 MM HG @ 12.1 DEG C CAUTION: INGESTION CAUSES INCR THEN DECR OF RESPIRATION, BLOOD PRESSURE, URINARY OUTPUT; FEVER; INCREASED BOWEL ACTION; MOTOR WEAKNESS; COLLAPSE WITH CONVULSIONS & DEATH. CAUSES LUNG, LIVER, KIDNEY DAMAGE, CONTACT DERMATITIS. ... DUST CAUSES SNEEZING. ACUTE EXPOSURES BY ALL ROUTES ... MAY CAUSE MUSCULAR WEAKNESS, GASTROENTERIC DISTURBANCES, SEVERE DEPRESSION, COLLAPSE ... ALTHOUGH EFFECTS ARE PRIMARILY ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, EDEMA OF THE LUNG & INJURY OF ... PANCREAS AND SPLEEN ALSO MAY OCCUR. ORALLY 8 G OR MORE PRODUCES RAPID CIRCULATORY COLLAPSE, DEATH. CHRONIC POISONING FROM ORAL OR PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION MAY PRODUCE DIGESTIVE DISTURBANCES, NERVOUS DISORDERS WITH FAINTNESS, VERTIGO, MENTAL CHANGES, SKIN ERUPTIONS, JAUNDICE, OLIGURIA, UREMIA. ... GENERAL PROTOPLASMIC POISON. SYMPTOMATOLOGY: 1. Burning pain in mouth and throat. White necrotic lesions in mouth, esophagus, and stomach. Abdominal pain, vomiting, ... and bloody diarrhea. 2. Pallor, sweating, weakness, headache, dizziness, tinnitus. 3. Shock: Weak irregular pulse, hypotension, shallow respirations, cyanosis, pallor, and a profound fall in body temperature. 4. Possibly fleeting excitement and confusion, followed by unconsciousness ... 5. Stentorous breathing, mucous rales, rhonchi, frothing at nose and mouth, and other signs of pulmonary edema are sometimes seen. Characteristic odor of phenol on the breath. 6. Scanty, dark-colored ... urine ... moderately severe renal insufficiency may appear. 7. Methemoglobinemia, Heinz body hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia have been reported ... 8. Death from respiratory, circulatory or cardiac failure. 9. If spilled on skin, pain is followed promptly by numbness. The skin becomes blanched, and a dry opaque eschar forms over the burn. When the eschar sloughs off, the brown stain remains. /Phenol/ TOXIC BY SKIN ABSORPTION, INHALATION, OR INGESTION. ADDITIONAL CHLORINATION APPEARS TO ENHANCE TOXICITY. /CHLOROPHENOLS/ IN RATS ORAL, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND INTRAPERITONEAL LETHAL DOSES OF THE CHLOROPHENOLS PRODUCE SIMILAR SIGNS OF POISONING. ORAL ADMINISTRATION, HOWEVER, RESULTS IN FATAL POISONING IN SMALLER DOSAGE AND IN A SHORTER PERIOD OF TIME THAN SC ADMINISTRATION. /CHLOROPHENOLS/ /RATS EXHIBIT/ RESTLESSNESS AND AN INCREASED RATE OF RESPIRATION APPEAR A FEW MIN AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF O- ... CHLOROPHENOL ... FOLLOWED ... BY ... DEVELOPING MOTOR WEAKNESS. TREMORS, CLONIC CONVULSIONS ( ... CAN BE INDUCED BY NOISE OR TOUCH), DYSPNEA AND COMA SET IN PROMPTLY AND CONTINUE UNTIL DEATH. IN THE RAT, MONOCHLOROPHENOLS CAUSED MARKED INJURY TO KIDNEYS WITH RED BLOOD CELL CASTS IN TUBULES, FATTY INFILTRATION OF LIVER, AND HEMORRHAGES IN INTESTINES. /MONOCHLOROPHENOLS/ O-CHLOROPHENOL INHIBITED RAT GROWTH, INCR RATIO BETWEEN LIVER WT & BODY WT. IT ALSO DECR HB CONTENT, HEMATOCRIT, & ADENOSINE/GUANOSINE RATIOS OF BLOOD. INHIBITION OF LIVER MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATION, DECR OF CYTOCHROME P450, LIVER DAMAGE & BONE MARROW CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS WERE ALSO NOTED. [R16] The acute oral toxicity, repellency and hazard potential of 2-chlorophenol to one or more of 68 species of wild and domestic birds was determined by standardized testing procedures. Redwinged blackbirds were the most sensitive of the bird species tested. [R17] Litter sizes of rats exposed to 500 ppm 2-chlorophenol were decr, esp in groups exposed prenatally. The number of stillborn pups was incr in rats that received 500 ppm. [R18] Female rats were exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm 2-chlorophenol from weaning to 3 wk post parturition after breeding at 90 days of age. Progeny were weaned at 3 wk of age and continued on chlorophenol treatment for 10 wk at which time major immune functions were tested. Immune responses in treated rats were not significantly different from controls. [R19] Weanling female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 5 ppm, 50 ppm, or 500 ppm of 2-chlorophenol in drinking water from 3 wk of age through breeding and parturition. The females were bred to untreated males at 90 days of age and the offspring were studied (prenatal exposure experiment or group 1). In another experiment, the rats were treated in the same manner but the exposure was continued throughout lactation and weaning until the termination of the experiment at about 24 mo (pre and postnatal exposure experiment or group 2). Each treatment group consisted of 12-22 breeding females and 48-52 offspring (both sexes). In group 1 (prenatal exposure), litter sizes of rats treated with 500 ppm 2-chlorophenol were significantly smaller than controls. The percent of stillborn pups was significantly increased at the same concentration. In group 2 (pre and postnatal exposure), serum antibody levels to bovine serum albumin in 2-chlorophenol treated rats averaged less than controls. Body, liver, and spleen weights of rats exposed to 2-chlorophenol were greater than controls. Tumor incidence, latency, or type in 2-chlorophenol-exposed male and female rats in group 2 was not different from that in controls. The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were generally increased in the rats treated with 500 ppm 2-chlorophenol when compared with controls. [R20] Irritant dose white rabbit ocular 0.15 ml of 1% aq soln caused slight hyperemia, 0.15 ml of 2% soln ... produced ... moderate to severe hyperemia, mild to moderate edema, cloudy cornea and exudation ... The changes induced by the one and two percent solutions became evident after five minutes, were most intense after 5 hr, and subsided by 96 hr post admin ... A 0.1 ml injection of the solutions ... produced mild inflammation after 24 and 72 hr. /Chlorinated phenols/ [R21] Effect (expressed as percent of control) of 2-chlorophenol (1x10-4 M) on enzyme activities of isolated bovine lenses: Lactic dehydrogenase 94.0; Malate dehydrogenase 64.4; Sorbitol dehydrogenase 91.9; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 129.9; Fructose-diphosphate aldolase 80.4; Pyruvate kinase 92.9; Glutamate-oxalacetase-transminase 92.7; Glutamate-pyruvate-transminase 142.9. [R22] EC50 Chlorella pyrenoidosa (algae) 500,000 ug/l, complete destruction of chlorophyll. /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ /Monochlorophenols/ [R23] ID50 (concn of chlorophenol required to produce a 50% inhibition in the production of ATP) rat liver mitochondria 520 uM. [R24] LD50 Rat oral 670 mg/kg. /From table/ [R25] LD50 Rat sc 950 mg/kg. /From table/ [R25] LD50 Albino Rat ip 230 mg/kg (minimum lethal dose). /From table/ [R26] LD50 Mouse oral 670 mg/kg /From table/ [R27] LD50 Rabbit dermal 740-2,670 mg/kg /From table/ [R28] LC50 Daphnia magna (Cladoceran) 2580 ug/l/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/ [R29] LC50 Carassius auratus (goldfish) 12,370 ug/l/96 hr /Static, unmeasured bioassay/ [R30] LC50 Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) 11,630 ug/l/96 hr /Static, unmeasured bioassay/ [R30] LC50 Poecilia reticulata (guppy) 20,170 ug/l/96 hr /Static, unmeasured bioassay/ [R31] LC50 Lepomis machrochirus (bluegill) 6,590 ug/l/96 hr /Static, unmeasured boiassay/ [R32] LD50 Redwinged blackbird oral > 113 mg/kg [R17] ABSORBED FROM ... GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT & ... PARENTERAL SITES OF INJECTION. ... EXCRETED AS CONJUGATES OF SULFURIC & GLUCURONIC ACID. ... URINE DARKENS AFTER STANDING. /CHLOROPHENOLS/ MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. O-CHLOROPHENOL YIELDS O-CHLOROANISOLE IN GUINEA PIGS: AXELROD J, DALY J; J BIOCHIM BIOPHYS ACTA 159: 472 (1969). /IN RABBITS/ O-CHLOROPHENOL YIELDS 3-CHLOROCATECHOL: DALY J ET AL; J MED CHEM 8: 153 (1965). YIELDS O-CHLOROPHENYL-BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE & O-CHLOROPHENYL SULFATE: SPENCER B, WILLIAMS RT; BIOCHEM J 47: 279 (1950). O-CHLOROPHENOL YIELDS CHLOROQUINOL PROBABLY IN RATS: SULLIVAN HR ET AL; XENOBIOTICA 1: 621 (1971). The urinary and biliary excretion of (14)C-labeled o-chlorophenol were investigated in 12 species of freshwater fish when immersed in sublethal concentrations of the cmpd in the aquarium water for 48 hr. o-Chlorophenol sulfate and o-chlorophenol glucuronide were detected in both the aquarium water and the bile of all the fish species. [R33] ... Various chlorophenols are formed as intermediate metabolites during the microbiological degradation of the herbicides 2,4-D & 2,4,5-T and the pesticides Silvex, Ronnel, lindane, and benzene hexachloride. /Chlorophenols/ [R34] Mammalian metabolism of chlorobenzene yields 2-chlorophenol as /one of/ the major products. [R35] IT HAS BEEN POSTULATED THAT THE CONVULSANT ACTION OF THE LOWER CHLORINATED PHENOLS IS DUE TO AN UNDISSOCIATED MOLECULE. /CHLOROPHENOLS/ In cats ... produces an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter released at the nerve synapse. /Monochlorophenols/ [R36] Weak uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. [R37] /2-Chlorophenol is a/ weak convulsant. [R38] Tumor incidence incr (69%) in rats receiving 2-chlorophenol (5 ppm) and ethylnitrosourea, as compared to 58% for rats receiving ethylnitrosourea only. The effects of 2-chlorophenol on reproduction might be related to the transplacental transfer of 2-chlorophenol. [R18] Release of 2-chlorophenol to the environment will occur through its use as a synthetic intermediate primarily for dyes and higher chlorinated phenols. Since the pKa of 2-chlorophenol is 8.52 it will exist in water and moist soils in a partially dissociated state which may effect its transport and reactivity in the environment. If it is released to the soil it will be expected to show low to moderate adsorption to the soil based on estimated Koc's and may leach to the groundwater. Hydrolysis in soil can not be important. Biodegradation in soils may be important with loss of 94% reported for 2-chlorophenol incubated in non-sterile clay loam soil at 4 deg C in 6.5 hr vs 1% loss in sterile soil in 12 days. If 2-chlorophenol is released to water it may adsorb to sediments. It will not be expected to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms and will not chemically hydrolyze. It will be susceptible to photolysis near the surface of waters and biodegradation should be an important fate process with complete removal reported in 13 and 36 days in die-away tests using 2 raw river waters, 15 days in 2 river waters seeded with water from previous die-away tests, and 15 days in acclimated river water. Evaporation from water may be an important transport process with a half-life of 3.3 days estimated for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. If 2-chlorophenol is released to the atmosphere it may be susceptible to photolysis and reaction with NO in polluted air. The estimated vapor phase half-life in the atmosphere is 1.96 days mainly as a result of addition of ozone to the aromatic ring. Exposure to 2-chlorophenol from environmental sources may occur through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water where 2-chlorophenol is formed by chlorination of water containing phenol. Occupational exposure may occur from its use as a synthetic intermediate primarily for dyes and higher chlorinated phenols. (SRC) 2-Chlorophenol is a synthetic organic compound and has no known natural sources. (SRC) Inadvertant synthesis of 2-chlorophenol is due to the chlorination of phenol in effluents and drinking water sources. [R39] 2-CHLOROPHENOL IS A WASTEWATER CHLORINATION PRODUCT. Release of 2-chlorophenol to the environment will occur through its use as a synthetic intermediate primarily for dyes and higher chlorinated phenols(1,SRC). [R40] Chlorination of polluted & natural water can produce ... chlorophenols which /are/ undesirable substances in drinking water. /Chlorophenols/ [R41] TERRESTRIAL FATE: If 2-chlorophenol is released to the soil it will be expected to show low to moderate adsorption to the soil based on estimated Koc's and may leach to the groundwater. Hydrolysis in soil will not be important. Biodegradation in soils may be important with loss of 94% reported for 2-chlorophenol incubated in non-sterile clay loam soil at 4 deg C in 6.5 hr vs 1% loss in sterile soil in 12 days(1). Since the pKa of 2-chlorophenol is 8.52(2), it will exist in moist soils in a partially dissociated state which may effect its transport and reactivity(SRC). [R42] AQUATIC FATE: If 2-chlorophenol is released to water it may adsorb to sediments based on experimental Koc's although estimated Koc's predict this adsorption will be low to moderate. It will not be expected to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms and will not hydrolyze. It will be susceptible to photolysis near the surface of waters and biodegradation should be an important fate process with complete removal reported in 13 and 36 days in die-away tests using two raw river waters(2) and 15 days in acclimated river water(1). Addition of seed water from prior die-away testing led to faster complete removal of 2-chlorophenol in one of the two raw river waters to which seed had been added (15 days with seed vs 36 days without)(2). Evaporation from water may be an important transport process with a half-life of 3.3 days estimated for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. Since the pKa of 2-chlorophenol is 8.52(3), it will exist in water and sediment in a partially dissociated state which may effect its transport and reactivity in the environment(SRC). [R43] ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If 2-chlorophenol is released to the atmosphere it may be susceptible to photolysis and reaction with NOx in polluted air. The estimated vapor phase half-life in the atmosphere is 1.96 days as a result of addition of ozone to the aromatic ring(1). Washout may be an important transport removal process(SRC). [R44] Studies on the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of selected chlorophenols were carried out using clay loam soil containing no added nutrients. o-Chlorophenol was rapidly degraded by microorganisms. [R45] ... 2-Chlorophenol was degraded by several Pseudomonas species isolated from soil. [R46] Complete removal of 2-chlorophenol at 1 ppm concn in 15 days reported in acclimated river water. Recovery of residual 2-chlorophenol (days) in river die-away tests using Great Miami River water was 980 ppb(0 days), 810 ppb (6 days), 710 ppb (23 days), 0 ppb (36 days), and in the Little Miami River was 890 ppb (0 days), 870 ppb (6 days), 480 ppb (13 days), 0 ppb (15 days)(6). Addition of seed water from prior die-away testing led to faster complete removal in seeded vs unseeded Great Miami River water (15 days vs 36 days), whereas time for complete removal in seeded Little Miami River water was nearly the same as that in unseeded water (15 days vs 13 days)(6). Loss of 94% reported for 2-chlorophenol incubated in non-sterile clay loam soil at 4 deg C in 6.5 hrs vs 1% loss in sterile soil in 12 days(2). Complete removal reported in 14 and 47 days in Dunkirk and Mardin silt loam suspensions, respectively(3). Degradation (degr) of 67% 2-chlorophenol reported in 10 days upon percolation through Rothamsted clay; degr was faster upon redose(4). Evolution of 13% and 25% theoretical CO2 in 1 and 10 weeks in para-brown soil reported(5). Complete disappearance of 2-chlorophenol was reported in aerobic columns of aquifer material contaminated by landfill leachate in 6 days for acclimated columns and 9 days in unacclimated columns; under anaerobic conditions degr occurred only with aquifer material from an actively methanogenic site(7). Complete loss of 2-chlorophenol reported in sediment from farm stream at 20 deg C in 10-15 days vs 19% in 30 days in sterile sediments(2). Complete degradation reported in 3 days in acclimated sludge(8); 0% theoretical BOD in 11-19 days with wastewater seed(9); 100% deg (5 ppm) and 0% deg (10 ppm) with activated sludge(9); 95.6% removal in 6 hr of 200 ppm with acclimated activated sludge(10). Incubation of 2-chlorophenol with sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions gave the following results: complete disappearance of 2-chlorophenol in 6 weeks with no lag period using unacclimated sludge; approximately 100% loss of 2-chlorophenol in 4 or 32 days with no lag period using sludge acclimated to 2- or 4-chlorophenol; in 14C-labelled-2-chlorophenol experiments in anaerobic sludge acclimated to 2-chlorophenol, >90% of total (14)C added was recovered as (14)CH4 and (14)CO2(11). [R47] UV irradiation of 2-chlorophenol produced catechol and/or 2,2-dihydroxydiphenyl. [R48] In sterile silica sand, o-chlorophenol underwent rapid non-biological degradation. [R45] Hydrolysis will not be important under normal environmental conditions(1). Since the pKa of 2-chlorophenol is 8.52(2), 2-chlorophenol will exist in a partially dissociated state in water and moist soils and therefore, its transport should be affected by pH. Photolysis also should be affected by pH as demonstrated by the fact that the quantum yields for the disappearance of the undissociated form was 10 times less (quantum yield (qy), 0.03-0.04) than that for the dissociated form (qy,0.30) when 2-chlorophenol was irradiated at 296 nm in aqueous solution at pH 8-13; the main product of photolysis from the undissociated form was pyrocatechol and cyclopentadienic acid from the dissociated form(3). 2-Chlorophenol (4.46X10-5 mol) reacted with 1 ml NOx in 1 l air for 5 hr to give the 4 and 6-nitro-2-chlorophenol adducts in 36% and 30% yields, respectively(5). The estimated vapor phase half-life in the atmosphere as a result of addition of photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals to the aromatic ring is 1.96 days(4). [R49] bluegill sunfish, 214(1); goldfish, 7.1(2). Using a reported solubility of 28,500 ppm at 20 degC(3) and a reported log octanol/water partition coefficient of 2.15(4), BCF's of 1.9 and 25 were estimated, respectively(5,SRC). Based on these experimental and estimated BCF, 2-chlorophenol will not be expected to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms(SRC). [R50] Koc: Sediments, fine, 4890, coarse, 3990(1); clay loam soil, 51.1(6). Adsorption to the organo-clay Bentone 24 has been shown to be pH sensitive for 4-chlorophenol; 2-chlorophenol was 76.6% adsorbed by Bentone 24 in aqueous solution at pH 7.8 and 15% adsorbed by Bentone 18c at pH 7.6(5). Using a reported solubility of 28,500 ppm at 20 deg C(2) and a reported log octanol/water partition coefficient of 2.15(3), Koc's of 15 and 352 were estimated, respectively(4,SRC). [R51] Half-lives for evaporation of 2-chlorophenol from stirred and static water at a depth of 0.38 cm at 23.8 deg C were 1.35 and 1.60 hr, respectively(1). Using a reported solubility of 28,500(2) and a reported calculated vapor pressure of 2.2 mm Hg at 20 deg C(3), Henry's Law constant of 1.3X10-5 atm-cm/mol was calculated(4,SRC). Using this calculated Henry's constant a half-life of 3.3 days was estimated for evaporation from a river 1 m deep, flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec(3,SRC). [R52] Determination of pollution levels of phenols ... and chlorophenols in sewage, stream water and tap water in the vicinity of Seoul (Korea) from Jan-Sept, 1979 was studied. By chlorination of phenol with hypochlorite, o-chlorophenol was predominantly produced at concentration of less than 10 ppm of free chlorine. [R41] Monochlorophenols were found in surface waters in the Netherlands at concn of 2 to 20 ug/l /Monochlorophenols/ [R53] DRINKING WATER: Identified, not quantified: in drinking water(1); in finished drinking water(2). [R54] GROUNDWATER: Melbourne, Australia, 1973 and 1975, 4 bore hole samples from aquifer polluted by chemical company waste ponds, 3 pos, identified, not quantified(1). [R55] SURFACE WATER: USEPA STORET database, 814 samples, 0.2% pos, median, <10 ppb(1). Great Lakes basin ecosystem, lakes Erie and Michigan basins, 0% pos(2). Netherlands: Rhine River, 1974, avgs 3-20 ppb(3), 1976, 206 grab samples, 2% pos, max 2.3 ppb, 1977, not detected(nd)(4); River Meuse at Eijsden, 1974, avgs 2-20 ppb(3), 1976 and 1977, nd(4). Netherlands, March 1979-March 1980, Ijssel River near Kampen, 13 samples, 7.7% pos, max 0.6 ppb(5). Rhine River, km 865, 1978, <0.1 ppb, 1979, <1 ppb(6). [R56] In Illinois, on June 20, 1980, o-chlorophenol was found in the pH 6 extract of the effluent at the Sauget wastewater treatment plant (wastewater from a heavy chemical plant; manufactures of alloy & metal tubing). [R57] USEPA STORET database: 1,312 samples, 1.5% pos, median, <10 ppb(2). US National Urban Runoff Program, through July 1982, 15 cities, 6.7% pos, 86 samples, 1% pos samples, 2 ppb(1). Secondary sewage effluent, 1.7 ppb, herbicide production waste, 2.88 ppb(3). Detected, not quantified in Love Canal water, sediment and/or soil(4). Extract from effluent from test hazardous waste incinerators, 5 extracts, 40% pos, 6.9 and 13 ppb(5). Municipal treatment plants, July 1978, identified at <10 ppb in primary effluents from Los Angeles (LA) and San Diego, and secondary effluents from Orange County and LA(6). Identified, not quantified, industrial effluents(7). [R58] Present in sewage effluents at 1.7 ug/l SEDIMENTS: USEPA STORET database: 308 samples, 1% pos, median, <1000 ppm(1). [R59] Contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of 2 sawmills using preservative against blue staining fungi that contained chlorophenols was studied. The soil around the treatment basins contained up to 70 mg chlorophenols/kg and that in the storage area for treated lumber up to 6 mg/kg. Contamination extended to a depth of at least 2 m near the treatment basins. [R60] MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. General exposure to 2-chlorophenol may occur through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water where 2-chlorophenol is formed during the chlorination treatment. Occupational exposure may also occur that is related to its use as a synthetic intermediate primarily for dyes and higher chlorinated phenols. (SRC) A level of 20 ug/l in water consumed at a rate of 2 l/day by a 70 kg individual, would result in a daily exposure of 0.57 ug/kg. /Chlorophenol/ [R61] 934 employees are exposed according to a NOES Survey which accounted only for 2-chlorophenol in 2-chlorophenol-labeled containers(1). A National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) from 1972-1974 estimates that 495 workers are exposed(2). [R62] Traces of phenols in auto exhaust and tobacco smoke were collected by using a fritted bubbler with 10 ml of 0.12% sodium hydroxide soln. ... /Phenols/ [R66] EPA Method 8040: Phenols. For the detection of phenolic compounds, a representative sample (solid or liquid) is collected in a glass container equipped with a Teflon-lined cap. Care is taken to avoid sample contact with any plastic. Maximum sample holding time after extraction is 40 days. [R67] AN ANALYTICAL METHOD IS DESCRIBED FOR CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION, AFTER DERIVATIZATION, OF 19 INDIVIDUAL CHLOROPHENOLS (INCLUDING 2, 3, & 4-CHLOROPHENOLS). MINIMUM DETECTABLE AMT FOR MONOCHLOROPHENOLS WAS 2 UG/L. RIVER RHINE & DUTCH SURFACE WATERS WERE ANALYZED. [R68] A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of a wide range of carboxylic acids and phenols, one being 2-chlorophenol, in water. Extractive alkylation is used with the tetrabutylammonium ion as counter ion and pentafluorobenzylbromide as alkylating agent. Extracts are analyzed by glass capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detection. Using a 1 ml water sample, the detection limit is 1-10 ug/l. [R69] Traces of phenols in auto exhaust and tobacco smoke were collected by using a fritted bubbler with 10 ml of 0.12% sodium hydroxide soln & determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography via derivatization with p-nitrobenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate in aqueous medium at pH 11.5. The analytical columns were packed with LiChrosorb RP-18 (5 um) and with Polygosil 60-5C18, and the mobile phase was 85% methanol/15% water. The detection limits of the phenols were 0.05-2.0 ng. /Phenols/ [R66] Detection of 2-chlorophenol in water samples was determined as 4-aminoantipyrene derivative by high performance liquid chromatography. [R70] A reversed phase HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography) method for resolution of phenolic compounds (pollutants), one being 2-chlorophenol, was presented. A new derivatization reaction was developed employing diazotized 4-amino-benzonitrile, which reacted also with p-substituted phenols. The products of the reaction could be extracted in n-butanol, allowing preconcentration and clean-up steps. [R71] Chlorophenols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (280 nm) in conjunction with electrochemical detection. /Chlorophenols/ [R72] Detection of trace chlorophenol residues in environmental samples by quadrupole mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring is described. /Chlorophenols/ [R73] High performance liquid chromatography separation by isocratic elution of a wide range of substituted phenols, incl the priority pollutants, was investigated. /Substituted phenols/ [R74] Detection limits by TLC are described for substituted phenols in water. /Substituted phenols/ [R75] Recovery of phenols from water by continuous steam distillation extraction was discussed. /Phenols/ [R76] GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF TRACE PHENOLS ... BY DIRECT ACETYLATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION. STABLE ACETATE ESTER CAN BE ANALYZED USING STD GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS SUCH AS OV-17 OR OV-101, ND. /PHENOLS/ [R77] A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SYSTEM, CAPABLE OF SELECTIVELY DETECTING INDIVIDUAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AT 1 PPB LEVELS IN WATER IS DESCRIBED. A POLYMERIC CATION EXCHANGE RESIN COLUMN, ACIDIC ACETONITRILE WATER ELUENT & AN ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTOR CONTAINING UNIQUE C-BLACK/POLYETHYLENE TUBULAR ANODE ARE EMPLOYED. 1 PPB LEVELS WERE DETECTED. /PHENOLIC CMPD/ [R78] A gas liquid chromatographic procedure is described for the identification of 32 substituted phenols. This method involves a simple and reproducible derivation step which forms stable phenol pentafluorobenzyl ethers for which the electron capture detector is highly sensitive. /Substituted phenols/ [R79] Direct determination of trace amounts of chlorophenols in freshwater, waste water and seawater was studied. /Chlorophenols/ [R80] Separation of free chlorophenol isomers on non-polar and polar quartz capillary columns was studied. /Chlorophenol isomers/ [R81] Determination of chlorinated phenols in water, wastewater, and wastewater sludge by capillary GC/ECD /Chlorinated phenols/ [R82] EPA Method 8040: Phenols. Samples are extracted using the appropriate techniques and are analyzed by gas chromatography using the solvent flush technique, with detection achieved with a flame ionization detector (FID). For the preparation of pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFB) derivatives, additional cleanup procedures for electron capture gas chromatography is proivded. Under the prescribed conditions, 2-chlorophenol has a detection limit of 0.31 ug/l, a limit for the standard deviation of four measurements of 27.0 ug/l, and a range of the average recovery of 54.1-110.2 ug/l. [R67] EPA Method 604 A gas chromatography method for the analysis of 2-chlorophenol in municipal and industrial discharges, consists of a glass column, 1.8 m x 2 mm ID, packed with Supelcoport (80/100 mesh) coated with 1% SP-1240DA, with flame ionization detection, and nitrogen as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 30 ml/min. A sample injection volume of 2 to 5 ul is suggested, the column injection temperature is 80 deg C programmed immediately at 8 deg C/min to a final temperature of 150 deg C. This method has a detection limit of 0.31 ug/l and an overall precision of 0.16 times the average recovery + 1.41, over a working range of 12.0 to 450 ug/l. [R83] This method is a direct aqueous-injection procedure for the gas-liquid chromatographic determination of ... dichlorophenols in water using a flame ionization detector. The method may be applied to samples containing more than 1 mg phenolic compounds/l. This method specifies a single gas-liquid chromatographic column for the separation of phenolic compounds and a flame ionization detector for their measurement. The peak area of each component is measured and compared with that of a known standard to obtain quantitative results. ... Compound identification is based on retention time; retention time of all compounds is relative to phenol. Using this method, 2-chlorophenol has a relative retention time of 0.8 min in column 1 (at 210 deg C) with a calibration factor of 86.7 ng/sq in and a relative retention time of 0.6 min in column 2 (at 188 deg C) with a calibration factor of 44.8 ng/sq in. [R84] A hydrolyzed urine sample (human) is analyzed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and the results compared. The method is sensitive to chlorophenols at the low ppb range. /Chlorophenols/ [R85] Detection of trace chlorophenol residues in biological samples by quadrupole mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring is described. Phenol concn as low as 1.0 pmol/ml urine (human) gave peaks that were readily discernible by selected ion monitoring. /Chlorophenols/ [R73] GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ... IN URINE OF INDUSTRIALLY EXPOSED WORKERS WAS PERFORMED BY GC ON GLASS COLUMN CONTAINING 60/80 MESH TENAX GC USING FLAME IONIZATION DETECTORS. THE DETECTION LIMITS IN URINE RANGE FROM 0.1 MG/L URINE FOR PHENOL TO 1 MG/L FOR THE DI & TRICHLOROPHENOLS. /CHLORINATED PHENOLIC CMPD/ [R86] CHLORINATED PHENOLS IN URINE ARE ISOLATED BY SORPTION ONTO SMALL COLUMN OF MACRORETICULAR RESIN. THE PHENOLS WERE ELUTED FROM COLUMN WITH 2-PROPANOL IN HEXANE; SOLN CONCENTRATED & THE PHENOLS WERE SEPARATED & ANALYZED BY GC. /CHLORINATED PHENOLS/ [R87]

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