|Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #)||
Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details
on this compound.
||EPA Method 8270 |
|Use|| IN PERFUMERY TO IMPART AN ORANGE-BLOSSOM-LIKE ODOR; CATALYST
FOR POLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS; IN ORG SYNTHESIS, ESP AS
SPECIALTY SOLVENT FOR PLASTICS & RESINS; CHEM INT FOR THE ODORANT,
ETHYL METHYL PHENYLGLYCIDATE, THE RIOT CONTROL AGENT,
2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE, 2-BROMOACETOPHENONE FOR DYES,
3-NITROACETOPHENONE; FLAVORING AGENT IN NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES,
ICE CREAM, CANDY, BAKED GOODS, GELATINS & PUDDINGS, CHEWING GUM;
FRAGRANCE INGREDIENT IN SOAPS, DETERGENTS, CREAMS, LOTIONS,
FLAVORANT IN TOBACCO.
|Consumption Patterns|| LESS THAN 4.5X10 6 G AS A FRAGRANCE INGREDIENT (1973)
|Apparent Color|| MONOCLINIC PRISMS OR PLATES ; SLIGHTLY OILY LIQ ; Colorless liquid ; LIQ
FORMS LAMINAR CRYSTALS @ LOW TEMP
|Odor|| SWEET, PUNGENT ODOR OF ACACIA ; ORANGE BLOSSOM OR
|Boiling Point|| 202 DEG C
|Melting Point|| 20.5 DEG C
|Molecular Weight|| 120.16
|Density|| 1.033 @ 15 DEG C/15 DEG C
|Odor Threshold Concentration|| 0.01-0.025 mg/cu m
0.8347 mg/cu m (odor low) 2.9460 (odor high)
|Sensitivity Data|| Liquid can cause eye & skin irritation on contact.
|Environmental Impact|| Acetophenone is released to the environment from a variety of combustion processes and
may be released during its manufacture and the manufacture of propylene oxide, kraft bleaching
and its use in certain perfumes. If released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be the major
degradation pathway. It is expected to be moderately to highly mobile in soil and may evaporate
from dry soil surfaces. Biodegradation and volatilization are expected to be the major loss
processes in water. The estimated biodegradation half-lives in groundwater, river water and lake
water samples were 32 days, 8 days and 4.5 days, respectively. The volatilization half-life from a
river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 3.8 days.
Hydrolysis, oxidation and adsorption to suspended particles and sediments and bioconcentration
in aquatic organisms are not likely to be important fate processes. Oxidation by hydroxyl radicals
in air has an estimated half-life of 2.2 days. Other oxidants (eg, ozone) and photolysis do not
appear to be important loss mechanism of this compound in air. Wet deposition may be important
for the removal of atmospheric acetophenone.
|Environmental Fate|| TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be the major
loss process for acetophenone(1,SRC). Based on various adsorption studies(2-6), it is expected to
be moderately to highly mobile depending on the nature of soil(7,SRC). It may also evaporate
from dry soil surfaces.
AQUATIC FATE: A number of biodegradation studies with sewage and natural water serving as
microbial organisms(1-3) have shown that acetophenone is readily biodegradable. The
biodegradation half-lives in groundwater, river water and lake water samples were 32 days, 8 days
and 4.5 days, respectively(4,5). Based on the value of its Henry's Law constant(6) and an
estimation method(7), the volatilization half-life from a river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a
wind speed of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 3.8 days. Therefore, microbial degradation and
volatilization are expected to be the major loss processes for this compound water.
Hydrolysis, oxidation, adsorption to suspended particles and sediments, and bioconcentration are
generally not likely to be important.
ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based on its vapor pressure , acetophenone is likely to exist in the
vapor phase in the atmosphere(2,SRC). The estimated half-life for the reaction of vapor phase
acetophenone with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere (generally, one
of the most important fate determining process for atmospheric pollutants) is 22 days(3,SRC).
Oxidation by other oxidants and photolysis may not be important for the loss of this compound in
the atmosphere. Because of its significant water solubility , wet deposition may be
important for the removal of atmospheric acetophenone.
|Drinking Water Impact|| DRINKING WATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in drinking water from
Philadelphia, PA(1,2,3); Poplarville, MS ; Cincinnati, OH ; Miami, FL ; New Orleans,
LA ; Ottumwa, IA ; Seattle, WA and Bayonne-Elizabeth area, NJ . The concn of the
compound in Philadelphia, PA drinking water collected in 1974 was 1.0 ppb . Its concn in a
Japanese drinking water was 5.4 ppb(6).
SURFACE WATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in the following River, and Sea
waters in the USA and other parts of the world: Kanawha River, Nitro, WV ; unnamed river in
England ; Waal River, Netherlands ; river in Kitakyushu area in Japan ; Hamilton Harbor,
Bermuda ; and Sea water near Japan . It was detected in 6 of 204 samples from 14 heavily
industrialized river basins in the U.S. sampled during 1975-1976(6). Its concn range in these six
samples was 1-2 ppb(6). Acetophenone was detected at a conc 2 ug/l in water from Lake
GROUNDWATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in an aquifer near an organic
wastes dump site in Australia . It was detected in the concentration range undetectable (less
than 0.1 ppb) to 10 ppb in the groundwater of a waste disposal site in Netherlands at depths of up
to 39 m .
EFFL: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in waste waters from a petrochemical plant(9), a
propylene oxide manufacturing plant(11) and in a surface water downstream from a tire fire
location . Acetophenone has also been detected in the atmosphere from vehicular exhaust(8),
waste incineration , residential fuel oil combustion(12), coal combistion(13), plant volatiles
and vaporization of certain perfumes(10). Its concn in waste water from a shale oil processing
plant in Australia was 10 mg/l and in spent chlorination liquor from kraft bleaching was 0.2-0.5
g/ton of treated pulp(7). It was also detected in secondary effluents from municipal treatment
plants . In one case, its concn in secondary effluent was 0.038-0.053 mg/l(6).