SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 98862
CASRN 98-86-2
SynonymsAcetophenone
Ethanone, 1-phenyl-
1-phenylethanone

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

Analytical Method EPA Method 8270
Molecular FormulaC8H8O
Use IN PERFUMERY TO IMPART AN ORANGE-BLOSSOM-LIKE ODOR; CATALYST FOR POLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS; IN ORG SYNTHESIS, ESP AS PHOTOSENSITIZER. SPECIALTY SOLVENT FOR PLASTICS & RESINS; CHEM INT FOR THE ODORANT, ETHYL METHYL PHENYLGLYCIDATE, THE RIOT CONTROL AGENT, 2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE, 2-BROMOACETOPHENONE FOR DYES, 3-NITROACETOPHENONE; FLAVORING AGENT IN NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, ICE CREAM, CANDY, BAKED GOODS, GELATINS & PUDDINGS, CHEWING GUM; FRAGRANCE INGREDIENT IN SOAPS, DETERGENTS, CREAMS, LOTIONS, PERFUMES. FLAVORANT IN TOBACCO.
Consumption Patterns LESS THAN 4.5X10 6 G AS A FRAGRANCE INGREDIENT (1973)
Apparent Color MONOCLINIC PRISMS OR PLATES ; SLIGHTLY OILY LIQ ; Colorless liquid ; LIQ FORMS LAMINAR CRYSTALS @ LOW TEMP
Odor SWEET, PUNGENT ODOR OF ACACIA ; ORANGE BLOSSOM OR JASMINE-LIKE
Boiling Point 202 DEG C
Melting Point 20.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 120.16
Density 1.033 @ 15 DEG C/15 DEG C
Odor Threshold Concentration 0.01-0.025 mg/cu m 0.8347 mg/cu m (odor low) 2.9460 (odor high) 65.0 ppm/water
Sensitivity Data Liquid can cause eye & skin irritation on contact.
Environmental Impact Acetophenone is released to the environment from a variety of combustion processes and may be released during its manufacture and the manufacture of propylene oxide, kraft bleaching and its use in certain perfumes. If released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be the major degradation pathway. It is expected to be moderately to highly mobile in soil and may evaporate from dry soil surfaces. Biodegradation and volatilization are expected to be the major loss processes in water. The estimated biodegradation half-lives in groundwater, river water and lake water samples were 32 days, 8 days and 4.5 days, respectively. The volatilization half-life from a river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 3.8 days. Hydrolysis, oxidation and adsorption to suspended particles and sediments and bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are not likely to be important fate processes. Oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in air has an estimated half-life of 2.2 days. Other oxidants (eg, ozone) and photolysis do not appear to be important loss mechanism of this compound in air. Wet deposition may be important for the removal of atmospheric acetophenone.
Environmental Fate TERRESTRIAL FATE: If released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be the major loss process for acetophenone(1,SRC). Based on various adsorption studies(2-6), it is expected to be moderately to highly mobile depending on the nature of soil(7,SRC). It may also evaporate from dry soil surfaces. AQUATIC FATE: A number of biodegradation studies with sewage and natural water serving as microbial organisms(1-3) have shown that acetophenone is readily biodegradable. The biodegradation half-lives in groundwater, river water and lake water samples were 32 days, 8 days and 4.5 days, respectively(4,5). Based on the value of its Henry's Law constant(6) and an estimation method(7), the volatilization half-life from a river 1 m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind speed of 3 m/sec is estimated to be 3.8 days. Therefore, microbial degradation and volatilization are expected to be the major loss processes for this compound water. Hydrolysis, oxidation, adsorption to suspended particles and sediments, and bioconcentration are generally not likely to be important. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: Based on its vapor pressure , acetophenone is likely to exist in the vapor phase in the atmosphere(2,SRC). The estimated half-life for the reaction of vapor phase acetophenone with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere (generally, one of the most important fate determining process for atmospheric pollutants) is 22 days(3,SRC). Oxidation by other oxidants and photolysis may not be important for the loss of this compound in the atmosphere. Because of its significant water solubility , wet deposition may be important for the removal of atmospheric acetophenone.
Drinking Water Impact DRINKING WATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in drinking water from Philadelphia, PA(1,2,3); Poplarville, MS ; Cincinnati, OH ; Miami, FL ; New Orleans, LA ; Ottumwa, IA ; Seattle, WA and Bayonne-Elizabeth area, NJ . The concn of the compound in Philadelphia, PA drinking water collected in 1974 was 1.0 ppb . Its concn in a Japanese drinking water was 5.4 ppb(6). SURFACE WATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in the following River, and Sea waters in the USA and other parts of the world: Kanawha River, Nitro, WV ; unnamed river in England ; Waal River, Netherlands ; river in Kitakyushu area in Japan ; Hamilton Harbor, Bermuda ; and Sea water near Japan . It was detected in 6 of 204 samples from 14 heavily industrialized river basins in the U.S. sampled during 1975-1976(6). Its concn range in these six samples was 1-2 ppb(6). Acetophenone was detected at a conc 2 ug/l in water from Lake Michigan(7). GROUNDWATER: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in an aquifer near an organic wastes dump site in Australia . It was detected in the concentration range undetectable (less than 0.1 ppb) to 10 ppb in the groundwater of a waste disposal site in Netherlands at depths of up to 39 m . EFFL: Acetophenone was qualitatively detected in waste waters from a petrochemical plant(9), a propylene oxide manufacturing plant(11) and in a surface water downstream from a tire fire location . Acetophenone has also been detected in the atmosphere from vehicular exhaust(8), waste incineration , residential fuel oil combustion(12), coal combistion(13), plant volatiles and vaporization of certain perfumes(10). Its concn in waste water from a shale oil processing plant in Australia was 10 mg/l and in spent chlorination liquor from kraft bleaching was 0.2-0.5 g/ton of treated pulp(7). It was also detected in secondary effluents from municipal treatment plants . In one case, its concn in secondary effluent was 0.038-0.053 mg/l(6).

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