SPECTRUM

Chemical Fact Sheet

Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 99081
CASRN 99-08-1
Synonyms3-NITROTOLUENE
1-Methyl-3-nitrobenzene; Toluene, m-nitro; 3-Nitrotoluol
Molecular FormulaC7H7NO2

Link to the National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances
Database for more details on this compound.

UseMANUFACTURE OF DYES, TOLUIDINES, NITROBENZOIC ACIDS. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R1] SYNTHESIS OF EXPLOSIVES; CHEMICAL INTERMEDIATE. [R6, 2473] Organic synthesis [R7]
Apparent Coloryellow liquid
Odorweak aromatic
Boiling Point 231.9 @ 760 mm Hg
Melting Point 15.5 DEG C
Molecular Weight 137.15
MiscDEN: 1.1581 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C HTC: 11232 Btu/lb = 86.3 cal/g = 3.61x10+5 J/kg HTV: 11,831.1 gcal/gmole log Kow= 2.45 SOLUBILITY IN WATER: 0.498 G/L @ 30 DEG C; MISCIBLE IN ALCOHOL & ETHER; SOL IN BENZENE.; 0.05 g/100 g of water at 20 deg C.; Soluble in ethanol SPEC: INDEX OF REFRACTION: 1.5426 @ 30 DEG C/D; MAX ABSORPTION (5% ALCOHOL): 274 NM (LOG E = 3.86); SADTLER REFERENCE NUMBER: 18 (IR, PRISM); 61 (IR, GRATING); IR: 2210 (Coblentz Society Spectral Collection); UV: 73 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); NMR: 22 (Sadtler Research Laboratories Spectral Collection); MASS: 86 (Atlas of Mass Spectral Data, John Wiley & Sons, New York) SOLIDIFIES IN AN ICE & SALT COOLING MIXTURE % in saturated air 0.13 @ 60 deg C. VAPOR PRESSURE: 1.0 MM HG @ 60 DEG C The major hazards encountered in the use and handling of 3-nitrotoluene stem from its toxicologic properties and explosivity. Toxic by all routes (ie, inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption), exposure to this yellow liquid may occur from its use as a chemical intermediate in the production of dyes, explosives, pesticides, toluidines, and nitrobenzoic acids. Effects from exposure may include contact burns to the skin and eyes, headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, increased pulse and respiratory rate, and methemoglobinemia. The onset of symptoms may be delayed up to 4 hours. OSHA has set a time-weighted average (TWA) limit of 2 ppm as a final rule to become effective December 31, 1992. Local exhaust ventilation should be applied to control airborn e 3-nitrotoluene to permissible limits. In activities and situations where over-exposure may occur, wear a positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus and chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the shipper or manufacturer. If contact should occur, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of tepid water for at least 15 minutes, and wash expose d skin thoroughly with soap and water. Contaminated clothing and shoes should be removed and left at the site for cleaning. While 3-nitrotoluene does not ignite easily, it may burn with the production of irritating or poisonous gases. Also, containers of this substance may explode violently in the heat of a fire. For fires involving 3-nitrotoluene, extinguish with dry chemical, CO2, water spray, fog, or standard foam. Fight fire from as far a distance as possible, and, if fire is advanced, evacuate the area. Dike fire control water. 3-Nitrotoluene should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area, away from sources of ignition, sources of physical damage, strong oxidizers, and sulfuric acid. Dike to prevent land spills of 3-nitrotoluene from entering water sources or sewers, and take up by absorbing the material in vermiculite, dry sand, or earth. For spills of 3-nitrotoluene in bodies of water, use sand bag barriers to trap material at the bottom, apply activated carbon, and use mechanical dredg es or lifts to remove immobilized masses. Health Hazards: Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may give off poisonous gases and cause water pollution. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] Fire or Explosion: Some of these materials may burn, but none of them ignites readily. Container may explode violently in heat of fire. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] Emergency Action: Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind, out of low areas, and ventilate closed spaces before entering. Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and chemical protective clothing which is specifically recommended by the shipper or manufacturer may be worn. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing is not effective for these materials. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing at the site. CALL CHEMTREC AT 1-800-424-9300 AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, especially if there is no local hazardous materials team available. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] Fire: Small Fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam. Large Fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fight fire from maximum distance. Stay away from ends of tanks. Dike fire-control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] Spill or Leak: Do not touch spilled material; stop leak if you can do it without risk. Fully-encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Small Spills: Take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal. Small Dry Spills: With clean shovel place material into clean, dry container and cover loosely; move containers from spill area. Large Spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] First Aid: Move victim to fresh air and call emergency medical care; if not breathing, give artificial respiration; if breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact with material, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. Speed in removing material from skin is of extreme importance. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes at the site. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Effects may be delayed; keep victim under observation. /Nitrotoluene/ [R9] LOW, WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT, FLAME OR OXIDIZERS. [R10] ... Contact with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid may cause fires. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] FLAMMABILITY: 1. 1 = MATERIALS THAT MUST BE PREHEATED BEFORE IGNITION CAN OCCUR. WATER MAY CAUSE FROTHING IF IT GETS BELOW SURFACE OF LIQUID & TURNS TO STEAM. HOWEVER, WATER FOG GENTLY APPLIED TO SURFACE WILL CAUSE FROTHING WHICH WILL EXTINGUISH FIRE. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R12,p. 325M-75] HEALTH: 2. 2 = MATERIALS HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH, BUT AREAS MAY BE ENTERED FREELY WITH FULL-FACED MASK SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS WHICH PROVIDES EYE PROTECTION. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R12,p. 325M-75] REACTIVITY: 4. 4 = MATERIALS WHICH (IN THEMSELVES) ARE READILY CAPABLE OF DETONATION OR OF EXPLOSIVE DECOMPOSITION OR EXPLOSIVE REACTION @ NORMAL TEMPERATURES & PRESSURES. INCLUDES MATERIALS WHICH ARE SENSITIVE TO MECHANICAL OR LOCALIZED THERMAL SHOCK. IF A CHEMICAL WITH THIS HAZARD RATING IS IN ADVANCED OR MASSIVE FIRE, THE AREA SHOULD BE EVACUATED. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R12,p. 325M-75] 106 DEG C; 223 DEG F (CLOSED CUP) [R12,p. 325M-75] 214 deg F (Closed cup) [R13, 142] WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL. [R10] If material is on fire or involved in fire, do not attempt to extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog, cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible, solid streams of water may be ineffective. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Toxic gases & vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen & carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving nitrotoluene. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] EXPLOSION: Lower Explosive Limit: 1.6% [R13, 142] REACTIVITY: Nitrotoluene will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, & coatings. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11] ... Contact with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid may cause fires and explosions. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] 1.74 ppm [R15] Slight eye and skin irritant. [R15] ... Butyl rubber gloves may provide protection from exposure to this compound. [R16] Wear boots, protective gloves, and goggles. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Wear self contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] Respirator Selection: At 50 ppm: Supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus. At 200 ppm: Supplied air with a full facepiece, helmet and hood, or a Type C supplied air operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode. Escape: Gas mask with an organic vapor canister (chin-style or front-or back-mounted canister) with a particulate filter, and self-contained breathing apparatus. /Nitrotoluene/ [R13, 143] Respirators may be used when engineering & work practice controls are not technically feasible. ... Respirators may also be used for operations which require entry into tanks or closed vessels, & in emergency situations. ... Respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety & Health Admin ... or by the NIOSH. ... Employees should be provided with & required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (8-inch min), & other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with solid or liq nitrotoluene. ... Employees should be provided with & required to use dust- & splash-proof safety goggles where solid or liq nitrotoluene may contact the eyes. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] Local exhaust ventilation should be applied wherever there is an incidence of point source emissions or dispersion of regulated contaminants in the work area. Ventilation control of the contaminant as close to its point of generation is both the most economical and safest method to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contaminants. Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain water flow as necessary. /Nitrotoluene/ [R14] ... A complete respiratory protection program should be instituted which incl regular training, maintenance, inspection, cleaning, & evaluation. ... Non-impervious clothing which becomes contaminated ... should be removed ... & not reworn until nitrotoluene is removed. Eating & smoking should not be permitted in areas where solid nitrotoluene is handled, processed, or stored. Employees who handle solid or liq nitrotoluene should wash ... hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent & water before eating or smoking. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. /Nitrotoluene/ [R17] The scientific literature supports the wearing of contact lenses in industrial environments, as part of a program to protect the eye against chemical compounds and minerals causing eye irritation. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases contact lenses should not be worn. Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning. /Heat contributes/ ... to instability. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] SHIPPING: No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./ [R18] Int'l Air Shipments: Chemical: Nitrotoluenes, solid or liquid. IMO Class: 6.1. UN 1664. Primary hazard label: Poison (packaging group II). Additional packaging instructions listed in the table must also be followed. /Nitrotoluenes, solid or liquid/ [R19] International Water Shipments: Chemical: Nitrotoluenes. IMO Class: 6.1, poisons. UN 1664. Packaging Group: II. Label(s) required: Poison. /Nitrotoluenes/ [R20] STORAGE: PROTECT AGAINST PHYSICAL DAMAGE. STORE IN COOL, DRY, WELL-VENTILATED AREA AWAY FROM AREAS OF HIGH FIRE HAZARD. [R12,p. 49-69] CLEANUP: 1. VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL OR LEAK. 2. FOR SMALL QUANTITIES OF LIQ NITROTOLUENE, ABSORB ON PAPER TOWELS. FOR SMALL QUANTITIES OF SOLID NITROTOLUENE, SWEEP ONTO PAPER OR OTHER SUITABLE MATERIAL. REMOVE TO A SAFE PLACE (SUCH AS A FUME HOOD) AND BURN PAPER. LARGE QUANTITIES OF LIQUID NITROTOLUENE CAN BE COLLECTED AND ATOMIZED IN A SUITABLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER EQUIPPED WITH AN APPROPRIATE EFFLUENT GAS CLEANING DEVICE. LARGE QUANTITIES OF SOLID NITROTOLUENE CAN BE RECLAIMED; HOWEVER, IF THIS IS NOT PRACTICAL, DISSOLVE IN A FLAMMABLE SOLVENT (SUCH AS ALC) AND ATOMIZE IN A SUITABLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER EQUIPPED WITH AN APPROPRIATE EFFLUENT GAS CLEANING DEVICE. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R11, 3] Land Spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Nitrotoluene/ [R21] Water Spill: Use natural deep water pockets, excavated lagoons, or sand bag barriers to trap material at bottom, remove trapped material with suction hoses. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. /Nitrotoluene/ [R21] DISPOSAL: 1. FOR LIQ NITROTOLUENE, BY ABSORBING IT IN VERMICULITE, DRY SAND, EARTH OR A SIMILAR MATERIAL AND DISPOSING IN A SECURED SANITARY LANDFILL. 2. BY ATOMIZING LIQ NITROTOLUENE IN A SUITABLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER EQUIPPED WITH AN APPROPRIATE EFFLUENT GAS CLEANING DEVICE. 3. BY MAKING PACKAGES OF SOLID NITROTOLUENE IN PAPER OR OTHER SUITABLE MATERIAL OR BY DISSOLVING IN A FLAMMABLE SOLVENT (SUCH AS ALC) AND BURNING IN A SUITABLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER EQUIPPED WITH AN APPROPRIATE EFFLUENT GAS CLEANING DEVICE. /NITROTOLUENE/ [R11, 3] The following wastewater treatment technologies have been investigated for 3-Nitrotoluene: Concentration process: Biological treatment. [R22] Routine checking of lips, tongue, and nail beds of exposed personnel for signs of cyanosis. /Nitrotoluene/ [R23] Initial Medical Exam: A complete history & physical exam: ... Exam of blood, nervous system, GI system, & cardiovascular system should be stressed. Skin should be exam for evidence of chronic disorders. ... A complete blood count should be performed, including red cell count, a white cell count, a differential count of stained smear, as well as hemoglobin & hematocrit. Periodic Medical Exam: The ... /initial med exam/ should be repeated on an annual basis. Methemoglobin determinations should be performed if overexposure is suspected or signs & symptoms of toxicity occur. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 1] /M-NITROTOLUENE/ TOXICITY IS IDENTICAL WITH THAT OF O-NITROTOLUENE. ... PRODUCES METHEMOGLOBIN CAUSING HYPOXIA, BUT OF A LOW POTENCY. ... SUSPECTED OF CAUSING ANEMIA IN CHRONIC EXPOSURES. [R6, 2475] Symptoms: Headache, flushing of face; dizziness, dyspnea, ... cyanosis, nausea, vomiting, muscular weakness, increased pulse and respiratory rate, irritability and convulsions. [R23] ... Cases of poisoning from nitrotoluene are uncommon. Some authorities considered it only slightly toxic, esp in comparison with nitrobenzene. There is some evidence that the different isomers vary ... in toxicity. ... It is stated that nitrotoluene is a methemoglobin former of apparently low grade. /Nitrotoluene/ [R24] ... The onset of symptoms of methemoglobinemia is insidious and may be delayed up to 4 hours; headache is commonly the first symptom and may become quite intense as the severity of methemoglobinemia progresses. ... Cyanosis develops early in the course of intoxication, first the lips, the nose, and the ear lobes, and is usually recognized by fellow workers. ... Until the methemeglobinemia concentration approaches approximately 40%, the individual usually feels well, has no complaints, and will insist that nothing is wrong . ... Over 40% ... weakness and dizziness; at up to 70% ... there may be ataxia, dyspnea on mild exertion, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 1] Target Organs: Blood, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular system, and skin. /Nitrotoluene/ [R13, 143] WHEN ADMIN ORALLY AT DOSES CORRESPONDING TO 0.1-0.2 LD50 VALUES IN RATS FOR 1-3 MO, THE HEMOTOXICITY OF TOLUENE DERIV DECR IN THE ORDER: TRINITROTOLUENE, DINITROTOLUENE, M-NITROTOLUENE, P-NITROTOLUENE, AND O-NITROTOLUENE. THEY CAUSED ANEMIA ACCOMPANIED BY RETICULOCYTOSIS AND A DECR IN THE LEVEL OF SH-GROUPS AND AN INCR OF FIBRINOGEN IN THE BLOOD. [R25] WHEN ADMIN ORALLY TO RATS AT 0.1-0.2 LD50 FOR 30 DAYS, M-NITROTOLUENE CAUSED TRANSFORMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN INTO METHEMOGLOBIN, NITROSYLHEMOGLOBIN, AND SULFHEMOGLOBIN. AN INCR IN THE LEVELS OF METHEMOGLOBINS AND SULFHEMOGLOBINS WAS ACCOMPANIED BY A DECR IN OXYHEMOGLOBIN, BUT THE TOTAL LEVEL OF HEMOGLOBIN REMAINED UNCHANGED. [R26] BECAUSE INTESTINAL BACTERIA ARE KNOWN TO BE INVOLVED IN THE METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF OTHER NITROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS, THE GENOTOXICITY OF NITROTOLUENE WAS EVALUATED USING AN IN VIVO-IN VITRO HEPATOCYTE DNA REPAIR ASSAY. 3-NITROTOLUENE WAS ADMIN BY GAVAGE TO MALE F344 RATS. AT SELECTED TIMES AFTER TREATMENT, PRIMARY HEPATOCYTE CULTURES WERE PREPARED AND INCUBATED WITH (3)H-THYMIDINE, AND UNSCHEDULED DNA SYNTHESIS WAS ASSESSED BY QUANTITATIVE AUTORADIOGRAPHY. CORN OIL CONTROLS RANGED FROM 3-6 NET GRAINS/NUCLEUS (NG). 3-NITROTOLUENE DID NOT INDUCE DNA REPAIR. [R27] The mutagenicities of the o, m, and p-isomers of nitrotoluene ... were tested with or without S9 mix and norharman in the Salmonella assay system. None of the cmpds was mutagenic without norharman. ... The induction of mutagenesis with norharman was strong for the o-isomer, weak for the p-isomer, and was not observed for m-isomer. [R28] p-Nitrotoluene, o-nitrotoluene, and m-nitrotoluene were examined for mutagenic activity in TA92, TA1535, TA100, TA94, and TA98 strains of S Typhimurium in the presence and absence of hepatic 9000 x g supernatant (S9) containing the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate generating system. ... The S9 fraction was prepared from livers of rats and mice after induction with KC400. p-Nitrotoluene (0.1-1 mg/plate) increased slightly Hist revertants/plate in TA100 over the spontaneous level in the presence of rat liver S9. ... No mutagenic effects were observed in the remaining chemicals, but these compounds had killing effects at 1-3 mg/plate in both the presence and absence of S9. ... [R29] To determine whether hepatic macromolecular covalent binding of mononitrotoluene isomers to hepatic DNA in vivo was decreased by inhibitors of sulfotransferase, male Fischer 344 rats were given a single oral dose of ring-U-14C-labeled 2-, 3-, or 4-nitrotoluene, and were killed at various times thereafter. Livers were removed and analyzed for total and covalently bound radiolabel. Maximal concentrations of total radiolabel were observed between 3 and 12 hr after the dose, and there were no large differences among the 3 isomers in peak concentrations achieved. Covalent binding to hepatic macromols was maximal 12 hrs after administration for all 3 isomers. Thereafter, concn of administration for all 3 isomers. Thereafter, concn of covalently bound 2-nitrotoluene derived material were always 2-6 times higher than those of 3- or 4-nitrotoluene derived material. When DNA was isolated from livers of rats given mononitrotoluene isomers 12 hrs previously, only 2-nitrotoluene was observed to covalently bind at concns above the limits of detection of the assay. The covalent binding of 2-nitrotoluene, but not that of 3- or 4-nitrotoluene, to both total hepatic macromols and DNA was markedly decreased by prior administration of pentachlorophenol or 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol. Covalent binding to hepatic DNA was decreased by >96%. Thus, 2-nitrotoluene, but not 3- or 4-nitrotoluene, induces DNA excision repair. Furthermore, 2-nitrotoluene, like the hepatocarcinogen 2,6-dinitrotoluene, may require the action of sulfotransferase for its conversion to a species capable of covalently binding to hepatic DNA. [R30] LC50 Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) 25.6 mg/l/96 hr (confidence limit - not reliable), flow-through bioassay with measured concentrations, 25.3 deg C, dissolved oxygen 7.6 mg/l, hardness 45.1 mg/l calcium carbonate, alkalinity 41.6 mg/l calcium carbonate, and pH 7.49. [R31] Preclude from exposure those individuals with anemia, cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. [R23] Persons with blood disorders may be at increased risk from exposure. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 1] IT MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE INTACT SKIN & THROUGH THE RESP TRACT. /SRP: ALSO ABSORBED FOLLOWING INGESTION/. [R32] ... Metabolism and excretion of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrotoluene ... were studied in male Fischer 344 rats. ... Major metabolites excreted in urine in 72 hr after administration of 3-nitrotoluene were 3-nitrohippuric acid (24% of the dose), 3-nitrobenzoic acid (21% of the dose) and 3-acetamidobenzoic acid (12% of the dose). ... [R33] 3-Nitrotoluene may be released to the environment during its use as a chemical intermediate in industries producing dyes, explosives and pesticides. If released to the atmosphere, vapor-phase 3-nitrotoluene may degrade by direct photolysis or by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals (estimated half-life of 16.9 days). If released on soil, 3-nitrotoluene may leach (estimated Koc of 143), degrade by direct photolysis or evaporate from dry soil surfaces. Data are available which suggest that 3-nitrotoluene may be susceptible to aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in water with an acclimation sufficient period and the presence of specific degraders in the microbial community. Although these studies are not specific to soil media, they suggest that biodegradation in soil may be important. If released to water, biodegradation, photolysis (photolysis half-life of 0.11 days in near surface water) and volatilization are expected to be the dominant removal processes. Based on monitoring data, the half-life of 3-nitrotoluene in a river 4 to 5 meters deep has been estimated to be 2.7 days. Photolysis will be expected to increase in waters containing humic substances. Volatilization half-lives of 16 hrs and 10 days have been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and a model environmental pond, respectively. Hydrolysis, adsorption to sediment and bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are not expected to be environmentally significant fate processes in aquatic systems. In occupational settings, exposure to 3-nitrotoluene of vapors and through eye and skin contact. (SRC) 3-Nitrotoluene may be released to the environment during its use as a chemical intermediate in industries producing dyes, explosives and pesticides(1). [R34] TERRESTRIAL FATE: Based on an extrapolated vapor pressure of 0.207 mm Hg at 25 deg C(7), 3-nitrotoluene may evaporate from most soil surfaces(SRC). Based on the UV absorption spectra(8), 3-nitrotoluene may photolyze if spilled on soil surfaces(SRC). Available data suggest that 3-nitrotoluene may be susceptible to aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in water with a sufficient acclimation period and the presence of specific degraders in the microbial community(1-4). Although these studies are not specific to soil media, they suggest that biodegradation in soil may be important(SRC). An estimated Koc value of 143 indicates high mobility in soil and significant leaching may occur(5,6,SRC). [R35] AQUATIC FATE: Based on monitoring data, the half-life of 3-nitrotoluene in a river 4 to 5 meters deep has been estimated to be 2.7 days(1). Volatilization half-lives of 16 hr and 10 days have been estimated for a model river (one meter deep) and a model environmental pond, respectively, indicating that volatilization from water may not be rapid(2,3). 3-Nitrotoluene may be susceptible to aerobic biodegradation in water provided a sufficient acclimation period and the presence of specific degraders in the microbial community(5-8,SRC). It may also be susceptible to anaerobic biodegradation given sufficient acclimation(7); however, data are limited. The photolysis half-life in pure water near the surface at latitude 40 deg N has been experimentally determined to be 0.11 days; furthermore, the photolysis rate has been experimentally determined to increase in waters containing humic substances(9). Aromatic nitro compounds are generally resistant to hyrolysis(2). An estimated Koc of 143(2), estimated BCF of 19-40(2), and an experimental BCF of 16 in fish (Poecilia reticulata)(4), suggest that adsorption to sediment and bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will not be significant(SRC). [R36] Based on an extrapolated vapor pressure of 0.207 mm Hg at 25 deg C(4), 3-nitrotoluene is expected to exists almost entirely in the vapor-phase in the ambient atmosphere(1,SRC). Vapor phase 3-nitrotoluene is degraded in the ambient atmosphere by reaction with photochemically formed hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air can be estimated to be about 16.9 days(2,SRC). 3-Nitrotoluene exhibits a broad absorption spectrum extending from the UV to the short-wavelength visible region(3) suggesting that photolysis of 3-nitrotoluene will be a dominant removal process in air(SRC). [R37] 3-Nitrotoluene (initial concn of 41 ppm) showed approximately 5% biodegradation after an incubation period of 4 weeks when acclimated for 21 days under aerobic conditions in a static test using domestic sewage inoculum at 25 deg C; however, in a die-away test using an inocula consisting of activated sludge and an extract of river mud at 25 deg C, 3-nitrotoluene (initial concn of 41 ppm) exhibited >90% biodegradation after 3 weeks of incubation when acclimated for 21 days(1). It showed no degradation when unacclimated in a similar die-away test suggesting that acclimation was necessary for significant biodegradation(1). In one aerobic screening study using activated sludge inoculum, 3-nitrotoluene at an initial concn of 200 ppm exhibited 98.5% removal in a 5 day incubation period when acclimated for 20 days at 20 deg C(2). Based on this study, the rate of biodegradation when acclimated was experimentally determined to be 21.0 mg COD/g-hr(2). Based on a 50% loss of UV absorbance after an incubation period of 12 days, 3-nitrotoluene (initial concn of 10 ppm) showed significant biodegradation when acclimated in another aerobic screening study using sewage inoculum at pH 7.3-8.5 and 29 deg C(3). In the same study carried out under anaerobic conditions, 3-nitrotoluene exhibited 95% loss of UV absorbance in 12 days(3). In one aerobic screening study, slow biodegradation (0-29% BODT) was observed for 3-nitrotoluene (initial concn of 100 ppm) when unacclimated using the Japanese MITI test after an incubation period of 14 days using activated sludge inoculum at pH 7 and 25 deg C(4). [R38] The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 3-nitrotoluene with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been experimentally determined to be 9.5E-13 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C which corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of 16.9 days at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(1,SRC). 3-Nitrotoluene exhibits a broad absorption spectrum extending from the UV to the short-wavelength visible region(3) suggesting that photolysis of 3-nitrotoluene will be a dominant removal process when exposed to sunlight(SRC). The photolysis rate constant in pure water for 3-nitrotoluene in near surface water at latitude 40 deg N has been experimentally determined to be 6.5 1/days which corresponds to a half-life of 0.11 days; furthermore, the photolysis rate has been experimentally determined to increase in waters containing humic substances(2). Aromatic nitro compounds are generally resistant to hydrolysis(4). [R39] The BCF for 3-nitrotoluene in fish (Poecilia reticulata) has been experimentally determined to be 16(1). Based on a measured log Kow of 2.45(2) and a measured water solubility of 498 mg/L at 30 deg C(4), the BCF for 3-nitrotoluene can be estimated to range from 19 to 49 using recommended regression derived equations(3,SRC). These BCF values suggest that 3-nitrotoluene would not bioconcentrate significantly in aquatic organisms(SRC). [R40] Based on a measured water solubility of 498 mg/L at 30 deg C(2), the Koc for 3-nitrotoluene can be estimated to be 143 using a recommended regression derived equation(1,SRC). This Koc value suggests that 3-nitrotoluene has high mobility in soil and may leach(3). [R41] Based on a measured water solubility of 498 mg/L at 30 deg C(1) and an extrapolated vapor pressure of 0.207 mm Hg at 25 deg C(3), the Henry's Law constant for 3-nitrotoluene can be estimated to be approximately 7.5E-5 atm-cu m/mole at 25-30 deg C(SRC). This value of Henry's Law constant suggests that volatilization from water and soil is not rapid but possibly significant(2). Based on this value, the volatilization half-life of 3-nitrotoluene from a model river 1 m deep flowing 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec has been estimated to be approximately 16 hrs(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model environmental pond has been estimated to be about 10 days(4). [R42] SURFACE WATER: 3-Nitrotoluene has been detected at a concn of 1 ug/L in Rhine river water(1). It has also been qualitatively detected in the Rhine river on several other occasions(2). [R43] 3-Nitrotoluene is used as a chemical intermediate in industries producing dyes, explosives and pesticides(1). In occupational settings, exposure to 3-nitrotoluene may occur through inhalation of vapors(2) and through eye and skin contact(SRC). [R44] +200 ppm /Nitrotoluene/ [R45] OSHA: 8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 5 ppm (30 mg/cu m). /Transitional limits/ must continue to be achieved by any combination of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment during the phase-in period, Sept 1, 1989 through Dec 30, 1992. Final rule limits become effective Dec 31, 1992. Skin absorption designation in effect as of Sept 1, 1989. [R46] 8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 2 ppm (11 mg/cu m). /Final rule limits/ shall be achieved by any combination of engineering controls, work practices and personal protective equipment during the phase-in period, Sept 1, 1989 through Dec 30, 1992. Final rule limits become effective Dec 31, 1992. Skin absorption designation in effect as of Sept 1, 1989. [R46] +Time Weighted Avg (TWA) 2 ppm, 11 mg/cu m, skin (1982) /Nitrotoluene/ [R47, 29] +Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. /Nitrotoluene/ [R47, 5] +Biological Exposure Index (BEI) adoption (1990-91 edition): Methemoglobin in blood during or end of shift is 1.5%. The determinant is usually present in a significant amt in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed. Such background levels are incl in the BEI value. The determinant is nonspecific, since it is observed after exposure to some other chemicals. These nonspecific tests are preferred because they are easy to use and usually offer a better correlation with exposure than specific tests. In such instances, a BEI for a specific, less quantitative biological determinant is recommended as a confirmatory test. The biological determinant is an indicator of exposure to the chemical, but the quantitative interpretation of the measurements is ambiguous. /Methemoglobin inducers/ [R47, 65] Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 1000 lb or 454 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b). [R48] NIOSH Method 2005. Analyte: o-Nitrotoluene. Matrix: Air. Sampler: Solid sorbent tube (silica gel, 150 mg/75 mg). Flow Rate: 0.01 to 0.21 l/min. Sample Size: 1 to 30 liters. Shipment: Routine. Sample Stability: Unknown. [R49] ... Detector tubes certified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 or other direct-reading devices calibrated to measure nitrotoluene may be used /to determine the amount of nitrotoluene in air/. /Nitrotoluene/ [R11, 2] KNOWN MIXT OF O-NITROTOLUENE, M-NITROTOLUENE, AND P-NITROTOLUENE IN AIR OF INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONS WERE ANALYZED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. THE MINIMUM CONCN OF THE ISOMERS WAS 1X10-6 G/ML, TIME FOR EACH DETERMINATION 10 MIN, AND THE ABSOLUTE ERROR 9%. [R50] NIOSH Method 2005. Analyte: o-Nitrotoluene. Matrix: Air. Procedure: Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection. For o-nitrotoluene, this method has an estimated detection limit of 0.0008 for a 20 liter sample. The precision/RSD is 0.062 and the recovery is not given. Applicability: The working range is 0.25 to 52 mg/ cu m for a 25 liter sample. Interferences: None identified. /o-Nitrotoluene/ [R49]

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