Chemical Fact Sheet


Chemical Abstract Number (CAS #) 7553-56-2
Synonyms ERANOL; IODE- (FRENCH); IODINE- ((127)I2); IODINE-COLLOIDAL; IODINE-CRYSTALS; IODINE-SUBLIMED; IODINE-127; IODIO-(ITALIAN); IOSAN-SUPERDIP; JOD- (GERMAN,POLISH); JOOD- (DUTCH); MOLECULAR-IODINE; Actomar; AI3-08544; Caswell-No-501; EPA-Pesticide-Chemical-Code-046905; (Componentof)-ioprep; Diiodine
Analytical Methods SM4500I
Atomic Symbol I

Synopsis from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 92nd Edition 2011-2013

Iodine (Gr. iodes, violet), I; at. wt. 126.90447(3); at. no. 53; m.p. 113.7 C; b.p. 184.4 C; tc 546 C; density of the gas 11.27 g/L; sp. gr. solid 4.93 (20 C); valence 1, 3, 5, or 7. Discovered by Courtois in 1811. Iodine, a halogen, occurs sparingly in the form of iodides in sea water from which it is assimilated by seaweeds, in Chilean saltpeter and nitrate-bearing earth, known as caliche in brines from old sea deposits, and in brackish waters from oil and salt wells. Ultrapure iodine can be obtained from the reaction of potassium iodide with copper sulfate. Several other methods of isolating the element are known. Iodine is a bluish-black, lustrous solid, volatilizing at ordinary temperatures into a blue-violet gas with an irritating odor; it forms compounds with many elements, but is less active than the other halogens, which displace it from iodides. Iodine exhibits some metallic-like properties. It dissolves readily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide to form beautiful purple solutions. It is only slightly soluble in water. Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine. Forty-two isotopes and isomers are recognized. Only one stable isotope, 127I, is found in nature. The artificial radioisotope 131I, with a half-life of 8 days, has been used in treating the thyroid gland. The most common compounds are the iodides of sodium and potassium (KI) and the iodates (KIO3). Lack of iodine is the cause of goiter. Iodides and thyroxin, which contains iodine, are used internally in medicine, and a solution of KI and iodine in alcohol is used for external wounds. Potassium iodide finds use in photography. The deep blue color with starch solution is characteristic of the free element. Care should be taken in handling and using iodine, as contact with the skin can cause lesions; iodine vapor is intensely irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. Elemental iodine costs about 25 to 75/g depending on purity and quantity.


At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. IODINE MAY BE DISPOSED OF IN SEALED CONTAINERS. React with large volumes of reducing agent (hypo- or bisulfites or ferrous salts) solution, neutralize. Alternatively, iodine may be recovered from various process waste streams.

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